Eighty Hadiths on
The Two Masters [al-Bukhari and Muslim] narrated from `A'isha (r) that the Prophet said to her: "Call your father and brother [`Abd al-Rahman] here so I will put something down in writing, for truly I fear lest someone forward a claim or form some ambition, and Allah and the believers refuse anyone other than Abu Bakr."1
Al-Hakim narrated - declaring it sahih - from Ibn Mas`ud (r) who said the Prophet said: "A man from the dwellers of Paradise is about to come into your sight." Whereupon Abu Bakr came and sat among them.2 The Prophet had already given him the glad tidings of Paradise before that occasion. Meaning: When he said: "Abu Bakr is in Paradise, `Umar is in Paradise, `Uthman is in Paradise, `Ali is in Paradise, Talha is in Paradise, al-Zubayr [ibn al-`Awwam] is in Paradise, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf is in Paradise, Sa`d [ibn Abi Waqqas], Sa`id [ibn Zayd ibn `Amr] is in Paradise, and Abu `Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah is in Paradise."3
ABU BAKR AND `UMAR (r)
Ibn Majah and al-Hakim narrated from Hudhayfa (r) that the Prophet said, "Take for your leaders the two who come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar."4
ABU BAKR, `UMAR, AND `UTHMAN (r)
Abu Nu`aym, al-Bazzar, Abu Ya`la, and Ibn Abi Khaythama narrated from Anas (r) who said: "I was with the Prophet inside an enclosed garden when someone came and knocked on the gate. He said, 'Anas, let him in, give him the glad tidings of Paradise, and tell him he shall be my successor.' Lo and behold! It was Abu Bakr. Then another man came and knocked on the gate whereupon the Prophet said, 'Let him in, give him the glad tidings of Paradise, and tell him he shall be my successor after Abu Bakr.' Lo and behold! It was `Umar. Then another man came and knocked on the gate whereupon the Prophet said, 'Let him in, give him the glad tidings of Paradise, and tell him he shall be my successor after `Umar - and that he shall be killed.' Lo and behold! It was `Uthman."5
Al-Hakim narrated - declaring it sound - and also al-Bayhaqi, from Safina (r) who said: "When the Prophet built the Mosque, Abu Bakr brought a stone and put it down; then `Umar brought a stone and put it down; then `Uthman brought a stone and put it down. Whereupon the Prophet said, 'These are the ones that shall govern after me.'"6 There is in this narration an allusion to their order of succession - Allah be well-pleased with them! Indeed, it was mentioned explicitly in some narrations that he was asked about it and replied, "These are the successors after me" while another narration has, "These are the ones who shall govern after me." Imam Abu Zur`a [al-`Iraqi] said, "Its chain is free of harm, and al-Hakim narrated it in the Mustadrak and declared it sound.7
Al-Bayhaqi and Abu Nu`aym narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As (r) who said: "I heard the Prophet say: 'There shall be among you twelve caliphs. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq shall not tarry but little after me, while the Master of the Arabs shall live a blameless life and die a martyr.' Someone asked, 'Who is he, O Messenger of Allah?' He replied, '`Umar ibn al-Khattab!' Then he turned to `Uthman and said, 'As for you, they shall ask you to cast off a shirt that Allah vested you with. By the One Who sent me with the truth! Truly, if you cast it off, you shall not enter Paradise until the camel passes through the eye of the needle.'"8
Ibn `Asakir narrated from Anas (r) who said: "The delegation of Banu al-Mustalaq instructed me to ask the Messenger of Allah , 'If we come next year and not find you, to whom should we remit our [obligatory] sadaqah (charity)?' I conveyed him the question and he replied, 'Remit them to Abu Bakr.' I told them his answer but they said, 'What if we do not find Abu Bakr?' I conveyed him the question and he replied, `Remit them to `Umar.' They asked again, 'What if we do not find `Umar?' He said, 'Remit them to `Uthman, and may they perish the day they kill `Uthman!'"9
Abu Ya`la narrated with a sound chain from Sahl (r) that [Mount] Uhud trembled while the Messenger of Allah , Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman were on it, whereupon the Messenger of Allah said: "Be firm, Uhud! There is none on you but a Prophet, a Siddiq, and two martyrs!" After that, `Umar and `Uthman were killed as martyrs and Abu Bakr died (r).10
Al-Tabarani narrated from Ibn `Umar (r) that the Prophet was inside an enclosed garden when Abu Bakr sought permission to enter. He said, "Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise." Then `Umar sought permission and he said, "Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise and martyrdom." Then `Uthman sought permission and he said, "Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise and martyrdom."11
The Two Masters narrated from Abu Musa al-Ash`ari (r) that the Prophet was inside [the garden of] the well of Aris one day and sat on the stone promontory of the well, in the middle, baring his shanks. "I [Abu Musa] said to myself: `Surely, today I shall be the Prophet's doorkeeper.' Then Abu Bakr came so I told him, `Wait,' and went to tell the Prophet , `This is Abu Bakr asking permission to enter.' He replied, 'Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.' Whereupon he entered and sat next to the Prophet on the edge, dangling his legs. Then `Umar came and I said, 'This is `Umar asking permission to enter.' He replied, 'Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.' Whereupon he entered and sat next to the Prophet on his left, dangling his legs. Then `Uthman came and I said, this is 'Uthman asking permission to enter.' He replied, 'Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Paradise after a trial that shall befall him.' He entered but found no room to sit on the edge of the well, so he sat opposite them on the other side of the well and dangled his legs." Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib said: "I saw in this an allusion to their graves."12
Al-Tabarani and al-Bayhaqi narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam (r) who said: "The Prophet sent me out, saying, 'Go and see Abu Bakr. You will find him sitting inside his house wrapped up in his cloth with his legs drawn up (muhtabyan). Give him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then go to the mountain until you find `Umar riding a donkey and his tall frame looming in the distance. Give him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then go to `Uthman, whom you will find in the market selling and buying, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise after a harrowing ordeal.' I went and found them as the Messenger of Allah had said, and I told them."13
ABU BAKR, `UMAR, AND `ALI (r)
Al-Hakim narrated - declaring it sound - from Jabir (r) who said: "I walked with the Prophet to [the house of] a woman who slaughtered a sheep for us. At that time he said: 'Behold! A man from the people of Paradise is about to enter.' Whereupon Abu Bakr came in. Then he said: `Behold! A man from the people of Paradise is about to enter.' Whereupon `Umar came in. Then he said: 'Behold! A man from the people of Paradise is about to enter. O Allah, if You wish, let it be `Ali.' Whereupon `Ali entered."14
ABU BAKR, `UMAR, `UTHMAN, AND `ALI (r)
Ahmad, al-Bazzar, and al-Tabarani in al-Awsat narrated from Jabir ibn `Abd Allah (r) who said: "The Prophet went out to visit Sa`d ibn al-Rabi`. [There,] he sat down and we sat down with him. Then he said, 'A man from the dwellers of Paradise is about to come into your sight.' Whereupon Abu Bakr came. Then he said, 'A man from the dwellers of Paradise is about to come into your sight.' Whereupon `Umar came. Then he said, 'A man from the dwellers of Paradise is about to come into your sight.' Whereupon `Uthman came. Then he said, 'A man from the dwellers of Paradise is about to come into your sight. O Allah, if You wish, let it be `Ali.' Whereupon `Ali came."15
ABU BAKR, `UMAR, `UTHMAN, `ALI, TALHA, AND AL-ZUBAYR (r)
Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayra (r) that the Messenger of Allah was on Mount Hira' together with Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Talha, and al-Zubayr when the rock moved, whereupon the Prophet said: "Be still! There is none on top of you but a Prophet, a Siddiq, or a martyr."16
Indeed, they all were killed as martyrs except Abu Bakr al-Siddiq - Allah be well-pleased with all of them! The trembling of the mountain repeated itself when he was on top of it with some of his other Companions.
2 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by al-Tirmidhi (gharib) and al-Hakim (3:136=1990 ed. 3:146) who declared its chain sound. It is confirmed as authentic by identical narrations from (1) Jabir by Ahmad with four good chains, al-Tabarani - cf. al-Haythami (9:57-58; 9:116-117) - with several chains in al-Awsat (7:110 #7002; 8:41 #7897), Musnad al-Shamiyyin (1:375 #651), al-Mu`jam al-Kabir (10:167 #10343), al-Harith in his Musnad (2:889 #961), al-Tayalisi in his Musnad (p. 234 #1674), Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (2:624 #1453), Ahmad in Fada'il al-Sahaba (1:209 #233; 2:577 #977), and al-Muhibb al-Tabari in al-Riyad al-Nadira (1:301 #146); (2) Abu Mas`ud by al-Tabarani in al-Mu`jam al-Kabir (17:250 #695); and (3) Ibn Mas`ud by Ahmad in Fada'il al-Sahaba (1:104 #76). Its continuation in the latter and al-Tirmidhi states, "Then the Prophet said the same thing and `Umar came" while all the others add `Ali third, and al-Tabarani - in one narration - `Uthman instead. Other versions by al-Tabarani mention `Ali alone, cf. from Ibn Mas`ud in al-Mu`jam al-Kabir (10:166-167 #10342, #10344), from Umm Marthad in al-Ahad wa al-Mathani (6:234 #3467) and al-Kabir (24:301 #764) cf. Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab (4:1957 #4209), and from Jabir in Ahmad's Fada'il al-Sahaba (2:608 #1038) while one version from Ibn `Abbas in the latter (1:454 #732) mentions `Uthman alone, cf. Kanz al-`Ummal (#36211). The Prophet also said the same of the rest of the Ten Promised Paradise; `Abd Allah ibn Salam; the Muslim combatants of Badr, some specifically such as `Ammar ibn Yasir; the Pledgers of Hudaybiyya; Ja`far al-Tayyar; Bilal ibn Abi Rabah; the Bedouin who swore never to add to nor subtract anything from the Five Pillars; the Ansari exempt of envy; al-Husayn ibn `Ali and his brother al-Hasan; Thabit ibn Qays; Malik, Abu Sa`id al-Khudri's father; Mu`awiya (in al-Firdaws 5:482 #8830 and Mizan al-I`tidal 2:243, 4:359); Hilal al-Habashi (Mawla al-Mughira ibn Shu`ba in al-Isaba 6:550 #8996 cf. Nawadir al-Usul #123 and Hilyat al-Awliya' 1985 ed. 2:81, the latter also mentioning Uways al-Qarani), Jarir (Nawadir #128), Sharik ibn Khubasha al-Numayri (Isaba 3:384 #3987), and al-Dahhak ibn Khalifa al-Ansari (ibid. 3:475 #4166).
4 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Hudhayfa by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib), Ahmad in the Musnad with a sound chain according to al-Zayn (16:611 #23279) and in Fada'il al-Sahaba (1:187), al-Tahawi with several sound and fair chains according to al-Arna'ut in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (3:256-257 #1224-1226, 3:259 #1233), Ibn Abi Shayba (12:11), al-Hakim (3:75-76=1990 ed. 3:79-80) with three sound chains as stated by him and al-Dhahabi, al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (8:153 #16352), al-Madkhal (p. 122), and al-I`tiqad (p. 340-341). Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (4:190) declared that the chains of the hadith are good and firmly established as authentic.
5 Narrated from Anas by Abu Ya`la in his Mu`jam (1:178), Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (2:557), Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (4:91), and al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (9:339), al-Bazzar, and Ibn `Asakir, all of them with a very weak chain because of Saqr ibn `Abd al-Rahman who al-Haythami (5:175) said "is a liar." The report is confirmed independently.
7 But al-Bukhari declares this narration "condemned" (munkar) cf. Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (2:440) while al-Dhahabi in his marginalia on the Mustadrak (3:97) considers it forged and Ibn Kathir terms it "gravely anomalous" (gharib jiddan) in al-Bidaya. Ahl al-Sunna hold that the Prophet did not appoint Abu Bakr as his successor but concur that he alluded to it by ordering him to lead the prayer.
8 Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As by al-Bayhaqi and al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (8:319 #8749) and al-Kabir (1:54 #12, 1:90 #142) - cf. al-Haythami (5:178) - and with a different chain in al-Ahad wa al-Mathani (1:96 #67) without the mention of `Uthman, as does Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (2:558); as well as the segment "Abu Bakr al-Siddiq shall not tarry but little after me" in al-Ahad wa al-Mathani (1:73-74 #13), cf. Ibn Abi `Asim (2:548), Ibn al-Jawzi in Sifat al-Safwa (1:235-236) and - from him - al-Muhibb al-Tabari mursal from al-Zuhri in al-Riyad al-Nadira (1:408 #329). Al-Dhahabi declared it "completely defective" (wahin) in the Siyar (9:133=al-Arna'ut ed. 10:411) and "null and void" (batil) in his Mizan (4:443), cf. Ibn `Adi's Kamil (4:207), Ibn Hibban's al-Majruhin (2:42), and Ibn al-Qaysarani's Tadhkirat al-Mawdu`at (#1032). The narration is sound only in the wording: "O `Uthman! It may be that Allah shall vest you with a shirt. If the hypocrites demand that you remove it, do not remove it." He repeated it thrice. Narrated from `A'isha with sound chains by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib), Ibn Hibban, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim.
12 Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim as well as (without Ibn al-Musayyib's comment) al-Tirmidhi and Ahmad. In one of Ahmad's versions `Uthman walks to his seat saying, all the while, Allahumma sabran.
13 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (1:266-267 #868), al-Bayhaqi in the Dala'il, and al-Dhahabi in the Siyar, both indicating its weakness. If true, the events possibly preceded those of the narration of Abu Musa at Aris. Cf. al-Haythami (9:55-56) and Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya, section on Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, chapter on "His ( telling of unseen future matters."
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