Contents

Glossary iii

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Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

`Umar Ibn al-Khattab

`Uthman Ibn `Affan

`Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Abu Hanifa

Malik Ibn Anas

Al-Shafi`i

Ahmad Ibn Hanbal

Bibliography

copyright ASFA, 1998

Glossary

 

adhn: the call to prayer.

faqh, pl. fuqah’: person of superior understanding; jurisprudent.

fatwa, pl. fatwa: a qualified legal response to a specific question.

fiqh: superlative understanding; jurisprudence.

al-fiqh al-akbar = usl

"The Four Imams": Abu Hanifa, Malik, al-Shafi`i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

"The Four Rightly-Guided Successors": Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, `Umar al-Faruq, `Uthman ibn `Affan, and `Ali ibn Abi Talib.

"The Four Schools": The Hanafi School, the Maliki School, the Shafi`i School, and the Hanbali School.

"The Four Sunan": Al-Tirmidhi’s Sunan, al-Nasa’i’s Sunan, Abu Dawud’s Sunan, and Ibn Majah’s Sunan.

gharb: strange, isolated, obscure; applied to a hadith chain, it means that it has only one narrator among the Companions and the subsequent links. Note: this is not an index of its authenticity as a gharb hadith may be either sahh, hasan, or da`f. A famous authentic gharb hadith is: "Actions are only according to intentions," which is narrated from `Umar ibn al-Khattab alone by Bukhari and Muslim. Applied to lexical terms, gharb means difficult. There are manuals devoted to the gharb or difficult words of Qur’an and hadith.

hasan: fair, authentic. Applied to a hadith or its chain of transmission.

istilh = mustalah

l ilha illallh: "There is no God except Allah." Together with the affirmation that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, this phrase enters one into Islam. "The people of l ilha illallh" are the Muslims.

karma, pl. karmt: miraculous grant from Allah to one of his Friends.

mu’adhdhin: one who calls out adhn, the call to prayer.

mufti: qualified to issue legal opinions and responses.

mu`jiza, pl. mu`jizt: mind-boggling miracle at the hands of a Prophet.

mujtahid: qualified to issue expert legal rulings.

mustalah: methodology and terminology.

nahw: Arabic grammar and related disciplines.

"The Nine Books": Al-Bukhari’s Sahih, Muslim’s Sahih, al-Tirmidhi’s Sunan, al-Nasa’i’s Sunan, Abu Dawud’s Sunan, Ibn Majah’s Sunan, Malik’s Muwatta’, Ahmad’s Musnad, and al-Darimi’s Musnad.

"The Six Books": Al-Bukhari’s Sahih, Muslim’s Sahih, al-Tirmidhi’s Sunan, al-Nasa’i’s Sunan, Abu Dawud’s Sunan, and Ibn Majah’s Sunan.

"The Two Sahihs": Al-Bukhari’s Sahih and Muslim’s Sahih.

"The Two Shaykhs": Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and `Umar al-Faruq; in hadith terminology, al-Bukhari and Muslim.

sahh: sound, rigorously authentic. The highest grading of a hadith or its chain of transmission. Also applied to a book of sahh hadiths.

Salaf: The righteous Muslims of the first three centuries of Islam.

tawhd: the affirmation of Oneness. Islamic belief and doctrine. Another name for Sura al-Ikhlas (#112).

usl, sing. asl: the foundations of Religion; Islamic doctrine. Also known as `ilm al-tawhd, and al-fiqh al-akbar.