Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim was-salaat was-salaam `ala Rasulillah

 

Part XI. Proofs From The Noble Sunna For the Probativeness of the Sunna (Continued)

7. Whoever disobeys him and rejects his sayings, preferring to follow his own opinion and whims, has disobeyed Allah, followed misguidance, and perished, such being deserving of hellfire and Allah's curse - may Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- protect us

Angels came to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- while he was sleeping.
One of them said: "He is sleeping."
Another said: "Truly the eye sleeps while the heart is wide awake."
Then they said: "Truly there is a similitude for your friend here. Strike a similitude for him."
One of them said: "He is sleeping."
Another said: "Truly the eye sleeps while the heart is wide awake."
Then they said: "His similitude is that of a man who built a house then gave a banquet, sending a herald [to invite the people]. Whoever responded to the herald entered the house and partook of the banquet, and whoever did not respond to the herald neither entered the house nor ate of the banquet."
Then the angels said: "Interpret this parable for him so that he may understand it well."
One of them said: "He is sleeping."
Another said: "Truly the eye sleeps while the heart is wide awake."
Then they said: "The house stands for Paradise and the herald is Muhammad -- Allah bless and greet him --. Whoever obeys Muhammad, obeys Allah; whoever disobeys Muhammad, disobeys Allah. Muhammad is the separator between the people (farqun bayn al-nas)."1

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said: "Whoever marches against Allah's rule(r) on earth (sultan Allah fi al-ard) in order to abase it - then Allah shall certainly abase his neck on the Day of Resurrection, in addition to the punishment that lies in wait for him." Musaddad added: "Allah's rule(r) on earth is the Qur'an and Sunna."2 Another version states: "Whoever denigrates Allah's ruler on earth (sultan Allah fi al-ard), then may Allah denigrate him!"3

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- was reported to say: "Whoever hears of a hadith of mine then belies it, has belied Allah, His Prophet, and the one who brought him that hadith."4

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- also said: "I was ordered to fight people until they say `There is no God but Allah' believing in me and in what I brought. Once they do, they have made their lives and properties untouchable by me except for the right due upon them, and their reckoning is with Allah."5

8. Faith and belief remains incomplete until one follows all that he brought

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said: "None of you believes until his likes and dislikes be in conformity with what I have brought."6 Al- Nawawi said this hadith corresponded to the verse "And it becomes not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided and affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, he verily goes astray in error manifest" (33:36), adding: "One is obligated to evaluate his every deed in the light of the Qur'an and the Sunna, contravening his likes and dislikes and following what the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- brought."7 Ibn Kathir cited this hadith8 in elucidation of the same verse in addition to two more: "But nay, by your Lord! they will not believe (in truth) until they make you judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which you decide, and submit with full submission} (4:65) and {And let those who conspire to evade orders beware lest grief or painful punishment befall them" (24:63).

Anas ibn Malik narrates: "The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said to me: `My little son! If you are able to rise in the morning and retire at night without the least spite in your heart for anyone, then do so.' Then he said: `My little son! That is part of my Sunna, and whoever gives life to my Sunna, he truly loves me: and whoever truly loves me shall be together with me in Paradise.'"9

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- also said: "Every servant of Allah possesses some propensity (shirra), and every propensity has its course (fatra) - either to the Sunna, or to innovation. If one's propensity is for the Sunna he has succeeded. If otherwise, he has perished."10

In a closely related context and meaning the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- also said, when a woman who fasted days and prayed nights was mentioned to him: "However, I sleep, pray, fast, and break my fast. Whoever follows my example is part of me, and whoever desires other than my Sunna has nothing to do with me. Every deed stems from a propensity and has its term. If one's course is to innovation then he has gone astray. If one's course is to the Sunna then he has followed guidance."11 A similar hadith was uttered in response to the three Companions - among them `Uthman ibn Madh`un - who had respectively vowed lifelong night vigil, lifelong chastity, and lifelong fasting.12

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- also said: "Truly Religion consists in sincere faithfulness (inna al-din al-nasiha). Truly Religion consists in sincere faithfulness. Truly Religion consists in sincere faithfulness." They asked: "To whom, O Messenger of Allah?" He replied: "To Allah; to His Book; and to His Messenger, the leaders of the Muslims and their multitude."13

9. Nothing but truth comes out of his blessed mouth

`Abd Allah ibn `Amr said: "I used to write down everything that I heard from Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him --, intending to memorize it. The Quraysh forbade me, saying: `You write everything you hear from Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him --, but Allah's Messenger is a human being that speaks sometimes in anger and sometimes in contentment.' Thereupon I stopped writing. I mentioned this to Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him -- and he said: `Write! By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! nothing but truth ever comes out of this' and he indicated his mouth."

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said: `May Allah brighten the face of [= grant prosperity to] that of His servants who hears my words, remembers [or preserves] them, guards them, and hands them on. Many a transmitter of knowledge does not himself understand it, and many may transmit knowledge to others who are more versed in it than they. The heart of a Muslim shall never harbor vindictive feelings against three things: sincerity in deeds made for Allah's sake; faithfulness to Muslims; and conformity to the community of believers - their invitation shall protect the believers and guard them from delusion.'"14

10. The best guidance of all is his guidance

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- delivered a sermon in which he said: "To proceed: The best of all speech is Allah Almighty's Book. the best of all guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst of all matters are newfangled matters. Every newfangled matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance."15

`Umar -- Allah be well-pleased with him -- came to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- and said: "We hear from the [People of the Scripture] narrations that impress us, do you think we should write down some of them?" The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- replied: "Are you all going to fall into the same chaos (amutahawwikun) in which fell the [People of the Scripture]? I brought it [the Religion] to you pristine and pure. If Musa were alive, he would have no alternative but to follow me!"16

Another version states that `Umar -- Allah be well-pleased with him -- passed by a man who was reciting a book, so he listened for a while and was pleased with what he heard. He asked the man: "Can you copy what is in that book?" He replied yes, whereupon `Umar bought a piece of hide for himself and brought it to the man who copied on its front and back [in Arabic].17 Then `Umar brought it to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- and began to read it back to him. At the same time the Prophet's -- Allah bless and greet him -- face changed color. Whereupon one of the men of the Ansar [`Abd Allah ibn Zayd]18 slapped down the book with his hand and said: "May your mother lose you, Ibn al- Khattab! Can you not see the face of Allah's Messenger since you began to read from that book?" The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- then said: "I was not sent except as an opener and a sealer. I was given the pithiest expressions with the vastest meanings and the openings of all discourse with true concision. Therefore let not those who are in chaos induce you into chaos."19

Another version states that `Umar -- Allah be well-pleased with him -- brought the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- a book he had taken from one of the People of the Book. He read it to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- who became angry and said: "Are you all going to fall into chaos, O Ibn al-Khattab? By Him in Whose Hand is my soul! even if Musa -- Allah bless and greet him -- were alive, he would have no alternative but to follow me."20

Another version states that `Umar -- Allah be well-pleased with him -- came to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- and said: "O Messenger of Allah, I passed by a brother of mine from Banu Qurayza who wrote me some epitomes from the Torah, shall I not show them to you?" Hearing this the Prophet's face -- Allah bless and greet him -- changed. `Abd Allah ibn Thabit said to `Umar: "Do you not see what is on the face of Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him --?" `Umar said: "We are well-pleased with Allah as our Lord and Islam as our Religion and Muhammad -- Allah bless and greet him -- as our Messenger!" The Prophet's -- Allah bless and greet him -- anger abated then he said: "By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If Musa came to you one morning and you were to follow him and leave me, you would be going astray. You are my lot among the nations and I am your lot among the Prophets."21

Another version states that `Umar -- Allah be well-pleased with him -- came to the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- with a copy of the Torah in his hand and said: "O Messenger of Allah! This is a copy of the Torah." The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- remained silent. As [`Umar] began to read the Prophet's face kept changed. Whereupon Abu Bakr said: "May your mother and grandmother lose you! Do you not see what is on the face of Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him --?" `Umar looked up to the Prophet's face and said: "I seek refuge in Allah from Allah's anger and the anger of His Prophet! We are well-pleased with Allah as our Lord and with Islam as our Religion and with Muhammad as our Prophet!" Then the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said: "By the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad's soul! If Musa were to appear before you and you were to follow him and leave me, you would be going astray and leaving the straight path. And if he were alive and heard of my Prophethood, he would follow me."22

Subsequently, `Umar in his caliphate forbade the copying or keeping of Biblical material, as shown by his hitting with a stick a man who had copied down the book of the Prophet Daniel.23

10a. The hadith "I have left among you two matters..."

The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- said: "I have left among you two matters by holding fast to which, you shall never be misguided: Allah's Book and the Sunna of His Prophet."24 Another version adds: "And these two shall never part ways until they show up at the Pond."25

Zayd ibn Arqam narrated: "The Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- stood among us at a brook named Khumm between Mecca and Madina [three miles from al-Juhfa]. He praised Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- and glorified Him then said: `To proceed: O people! Truly I am now only waiting for a messenger [of death] sent by my Lord so that I may respond. Therefore I am leaving among you the two weighty matters: Allah's Book - in it is the guidance and the light, therefore hold fast to Allah's Book, and conform to it!' - and he encouraged people to do so, and urged them. Then he said: `And the people of my House. I remind you of Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- concerning the people of my House! I remind you of Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- concerning the people of my House (ahl bayti)! I remind you of Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- concerning the people of my House!'"26

Another version states that Jabir ibn `Abd Allah said: "I saw Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him -- in his Pilgrimage on the Day of `Arafa as he was mounted on his camel al-Qaswa' addressing the people and I heard him say: `O people! I have left among you that which if you hold to it you shall never go astray: Allah's Book and my mantle (`itra), the People of my House.'"27

Other versions state: "I am leaving among you that which if you hold to it, you shall never go astray, one of them greater than the other: Allah's Book - a rope extended down from the heaven to the earth - and my mantle (`itra), the People of my House. These two shall never part ways until they come to me at the Pond. Look well to how you act with them after me."28

It is established that when the verse of mutual invocation of curses (mubahala) was revealed (3:61), the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- summoned `Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, and said: "O Allah! These are my Family" (Allahumma ha'ula'u ahli).29 He repeated this act when the verse of the cleansing of the People of the House was revealed (33:33).30 The term ahl bayti was further defined among the pious Salaf as follows:

Husayn ibn Sabra said to Zayd: "Who are the People of his House, O Zayd? Are not his wives among the People of his House?" Zayd replied: "His wives are certainly among the People of his House, but the People of his House are [primarily] those for whom sadaqa is unlawful after the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him --." Husayn said: "And who are they?" He replied: "The family of `Ali, the family of `Aqil, the family of Ja`far [all sons of Abu Talib], and the family of `Abbas [ibn `Abd al-Muttalib]." Husayn said: "Is sadaqa unlawful for all of these?" Zayd replied yes.31

Lexically, the term `itra was defined as "A man's relatives such as his children, grandchildren, and paternal cousins"32 while in the context of the present hadiths it was explained to mean "Those of the Prophet's Family who follow his Religion and cling to his commands."33 What emerges from these meanings together with the two wordings of the hadith "I have left among you two matters" is firm evidence that there is an inseparable connection, until the Last Day, between the Qur'an, the Sunna, and the Family of the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him --.

One of the meanings of the Family version is the Prophet's -- Allah bless and greet him -- specific recommendation of `Ali ibn Abi Talib -- Allah be well- pleased with him -- to the Muslims as explicited by the following two narrations:

At the tree of Khumm the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- took `Ali by the hand and said: "O people! Do you not bear witness that Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- is your Lord?" They said yes. He said: "Do you not bear witness that Allah is nearer and His Prophet is nearer to you all (awla bikum) than your own selves [cf. Qur'an 33:6], and that Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- and His Prophet are your two protecting friends (mawlayakum) [cf. Qur'an 3:150, 8:40, 22:78, 66:2]?" They said yes. He said: "Anyone whose protecting friend (mawla) I am, this is his protecting friend!" Or he said - Ibn Marzuq, one of the narrators, was unsure - "`Ali is his protecting friend.34 Truly I have left among you that which if you hold to it, you shall never go astray: Allah's Book - which is His rope in your very hands - and the people of my House."35

On his way back from his Farewell Pilgrimage when the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- alighted at the brook of Khumm (Ghadir Khumm), he ordered a stop under the large trees then he said: "I seem to be called back [by my Lord], therefore I am responding [to Him]. Truly I have left among you the two weighty matters, one of them greater than the other: Allah's Book and my mantle (`itra), the People of my House. Look well to how you act with them after me. For these two shall never part ways until they show up at the Pond." Then he said: "Truly Allah -- Almighty and Exalted -- is my Protecting Friend, and I am the protecting friend of every believer." Then he took `Ali -- Allah be well- pleased with him -- by the hand and said: "Anyone whose protecting friend (mawla) I am, this is his protecting friend. O Allah! Be the Protecting Friend of whoever takes him as protecting friend, and be the enemy of whoever takes him as enemy." The Companion Abu al-Tufayl said to Zayd ibn Arqam: "You heard this from Allah's Messenger?" He replied: "There was no-one under those large trees except he saw it with his two eyes and heard it with his two ears."36

NOTES

1Narrated from Jabir ibn `Abd Allah by al-Bukhari.

2Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (p. 612-613 #1462=old ed. 2:627) and al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (11:214), both with weak chains as indicated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:170) and Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (2:352). Also narrated from Hudhayfa by al-Azdi in al-Jami` (11:344) with the wording: "No people march against Allah's rule in order to abase it except Allah abases their necks before they die," without Musaddad's gloss.

3A fair hadith due to its witness-narrations (hasan li ghayrih), narrated from Abu Bakrah by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) with the wording: Zyad ibn Kusayb al- `Adawi narrated: "I was with Abu Bakrah under Ibn `Amir's pulpit while the latter was speaking, and he was wearing very fine clothes. Whereupon Abu Bilal [= Muradis ibn Uddayya, one of the Khawarij] said: `Look at our emir, he is wearing the garb of corrupt men!' Hearing this Abu Bakrah said: `Be quiet! I heard Allah's Messenger -- Allah bless and greet him -- say: "Whoever denigrates Allah's ruler on earth, then Allah shall certainly denigrate him."'" Also narrated by Ahmad, with some additions, through two chains and, as part of a longer hadith, from Ibn `Abbas by al-Khatib in his Tarikh (6:67) - he alluded to its weakness - and al-Tabarani with a chain of sound narrators except for one unknown as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (5:211-212).

4A "denounced" (munkar) hadith according to al-Dhahabi in Mizan al-I`tidal (3:444 #7094) narrated from Jabir by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat, al-Khatib in al-Faqih wa al-Mutafaqqih (1:90), Ibn `Asakir in his Tarikh (27:409-410), and Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1183-1184 #2340), all with chains containing Mahfuz ibn Miswar al-Fihri who is unknown - as stated by al-Dhahabi and al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id - and Baqiyya ibn al-Walid who used to conceal the weak links of his narrative chains so as to pass them off for strong ones.

5A mass-narrated (mutawatir) hadith of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - - narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, and others from nineteen Companions as stated by al-Kattani in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

6Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna, Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (p. 12 #15), and al-Nasawi in al-Arba`in (p. 52), the latter two with weak chains because of Nu`aym ibn Hammad; also from Abu Hurayra with a chain of sound narrators according to Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:289), while al-Nawawi declared it hasan sahih in his Forty Hadiths (#42) as related by al-Qari in Sharh al-Mishkat (1994 ed. 1:412-413 #167).

7Al-Nawawi, Sharh Matn al-Arba`in (p. 134).

8In his Tafsir (3:491).

9Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) with a weak chain because of `Ali ibn Zayd, although al-Tirmidhi considers him credible (saduq) and - in full - by al- Tabarani in al-Saghir (2:102) and Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (6:306-309) with weak chains because of Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Abi Yazid as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:272).

10Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by Ahmad with five chains, al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (2:88), Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (p. 27-28 #51), al- Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (3:399-400), Ibn Khuzayma in his Sahih (3:293-294 #2105), and his student Ibn Hibban in his (1:187-188 #11), all with sound chains as stated by Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna'ut in the latter and al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (3:193). Also narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Bazzar with a chain of sound narrators, and from Abu Hurayra by al-Tabarani with a weak chain, both as indicated by al-Haythami also (2:259). The collation of the various accounts in Ahmad reveals that the events in which the hadith was uttered: `Abd Allah ibn `Amr married a Quraysh woman but did not cohabit with her, being engrossed in worship and fasting. News of this reached the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- who said to him: "Fast three days of the months" but `Abd Allah kept saying that he could bear with more until the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- told him to fast every other day. Then he told him to recite the Qur'an (in prayer once a month), finally allowing him to recite it in whole every three days. This account is also narrated by Bukhari and Muslim. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 4:218). `Abd Allah's ibn `Amr's propensity for worship is one of the reasons why he reported less than Abu Hurayra, although the latter acknowledged that no-one heard more than he from the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him --, except `Abd Allah ibn `Amr, because the latter could write, unlike Abu Hurayra; and Allah knows best.

11Narrated from an unnamed Companion by Ahmad in his Musnad with a chain of sound narrators as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (3:193).

12Narrated from Anas by Bukhari, Muslim, al-Nasa'i, Ahmad with three chains; from `A'isha by Abu Dawud; and from Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas by al-Darimi.

13Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih) and Ahmad, and from Tamim al-Dari by Abu Dawud. Also narrated - without the repetition - from Tamim by Muslim and al-Nasa'i, and from Abu Hurayra by al-Nasa'i and Ahmad.

14 Narrated from Zayd ibn Thabit by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Darimi, and al-Shafi'i in his Risala (#1102). Al-Tirmidhi's version does not mention the last sentence. On the variant wordings of this important hadith see Shaykh 'Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda's al-Rasul al-Mu'allim (p. 55-56).

15Narrated from Jabir by Muslim.

16Narrated from Jabir by al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (1:200) and mursal from al-Hasan by al-Khatib in al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (1991 ed. 2:228 #1531=1983 ed. 2:161) with weak chains.

17As stated by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:525).

18Ibid.

19Narrated mursal from Abu Qilaba by `Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf (6:112-113).

20Narrated from Jabir by Ahmad, and Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (p. 27 #50) with weak chains because of Mujalid ibn Sa`id as indicated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:174) - notwithstanding Hamza al-Zayn's lax grading of a "fair chain" in the Musnad (12:85 #15094). Also narrated from Jabir by Ibn `Abd al- Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:805-806 #1497) with the addition: "Do not ask them about anything so that they will not tell you of something true which you might declare false, or something false which you might declare true." Al- Dhahabi in the Siyar (al-Arna'ut ed. 13:325) described the hadith as gharib while Albani in his Irwa' al-Ghalil (#1589) declares the narration fair on the basis of its witness-chains.

21Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn Thabit by Ahmad, al-Tabarani, `Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf (6:113), and al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (3/4:307), all with weak chains because of Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al-Harith al-Ju`fi as indicated by al- Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:173).

22Narrated from Jabir by al-Darimi with a weak chain because of Mujalid.

23Cited by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:525).

24Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (10:114 #20108) and - as part of a longer hadith - by al-Hakim (1:93=1990 ed. 1:171) who declared it sahih and - without chain - by Malik in his Muwatta'.

25Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Hakim (1:93=1990 ed. 1:172) and al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal.

26Narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam by Muslim, Ahmad with the addition of the words "I am only a human being," al-Darimi, al-Tahawi in Mushkil al-Athar (9:89 #3464), Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (#1550), al-Tabarani (#5028), and others.

27Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) with a weak chain because of Zayd ibn al-Hasan al-Qurashi.

28Narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) and al-Hakim (3:148), the latter with a sound chain as confirmed by al-Dhahabi, but without the last sentence and the words "my mantle"; from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by al- Tirmidhi (hasan gharib) and Ahmad with weak chains because of `Atiyya ibn Sa`d al-`Awfi; and from Zayd ibn Thabit by Ahmad and al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (5:153) with chains containing al-Qasim ibn Hassan who is passable (maqbul) and not trustworthy, contrary to al-Haythami's claim in Majma` al-Zawa'id (1:170). The latter version states: "I am leaving among you two successors (khalifatayn)..." Also narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam by al-Nasa'i in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:45, 5:130) with the wording: "I am leaving among you the two weighty matters..."

29Narrated from Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahih gharib), al-Hakim and others.

30Narrated from Umm Salama by Ahmad with six chains, al-Tirmidhi with several chains (hasan sahih), al-Hakim, al-Tabarani, and others.

31Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad with a sound chain.

32Mu`jam Maqayis al-Lugha (4:217).

33Al-Tahawi, Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (9:88).

34On this hadith see also the biographical notice on `Ali ibn Abi Talib, posted at http://sunnah.org/history/Default.htm .

35Narrated from `Ali by al-Tahawi with a fair chain as stated by al-Arna'ut in his edition of Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (5:13 #1760), while Ibn Hajar declared the chain sound (sahih) in al-Matalib al-`Aliya (#3972).

36A sound hadith narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam by al-Tahawi in Mushkil al-Athar (5:18 #1765) as stated by Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna'ut, also by al-Nasa'i in his Khasa'is `Ali (#79) and Fada'il al-Sahaba (#45), al-Hakim (3:109) who declared it sound, and al-Tabarani (#4969). The stand-alone hadith "I am leaving among you the two weighty matters: Allah's Book and the People of my House" is also narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam with a sound chain - as stated by al-Arna'ut - by Ahmad, al-Tahawi in Mushkil al-Athar (9:88 #3463), and al-Tabarani (#5040); from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by Ahmad with a weak chain because of `Atiyya ibn Sa`d al- `Awfi; and from `Ali by al-Bazzar with a weak chain as indicated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa'id (9:163).