Questions on Hadith Science: Authentication and Transmission

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1) The author of al-Kanz al-Ummal, Shaykh Ali al-Muttaqi continued to compile hadith after where Imam al-Suyuti left off in his Jam al-Jawami. Can you tell me what the status of all the hadiths in Kanz al-Ummal are classified to be (Sahih, da'eef etc), if Shaykh Muttaqi merely quoted the hadith and named who collected it? Can they be used as evidence in fiqh rulings if he remained silent in their authoritativeness? Especially when the original hadith compilers were not quoted by Shaykh Muttaqi in grading a particular narration.

Al-Muttaqi did not give gradings but only sources. Whether he gives or does not give sources, there is no authentication unless he explicitly states so, as he sometimes does, but more often not. Therefore, the hadiths need gradings before being used as evidence whether in fiqh, `aqida, or akhlaq. The author of I`la' al-Sunan, for example, usually provides a grading whenever citing the Kanz.

2) Same question applies to those narrations in ibn Hazm's al-Muhalla. If he remained silent - does that mean they are sahih to ibn Hazm?

Ibn Hazm tends to be explicit in his authentications but his adducing a hadith in support of his discourse does constitute an implicit grading of sahih or hasan on his part. Nevertheless, a grading of sahih or da`if by Ibn Hazm alone is not enough.

3) Same question applies to al-Hafiz ibn Hajar's Fath al-Bari.

If Ibn Hajar mentions a hadith in Fath al-Bari without giving a grading, the grade of the hadith is at least hasan according to him, as he stated in the introduction. Such a grading - even by the Hafiz alone - carries weight.

4) What is the difference between Akhbarana, haddathana, and reported with Ijaza mean in conveying a hadith? What are the types of Ijaza whereby one can receive to narrate hadiths back to the Sahaba's time. Please give some classical quotes.

There is no difference between Akhbarana and Haddathana according to the vast majority of the authorities as stated by Imam al-Tahawi in his monograph on the subject and confirmed by the Huffaz e.g. Alfiyyat al-`Iraqi and its Shuruh, Nukhbat al-Fikar and its Shuruh, Sirajuddin
on al-Bayquniyya etc.

There are many types of Ijaza, the highest being sama` and `ard, respectively audition and readout, a weaker type being basic permission without any reading having taken place but based on the senior authority trusting the junior to be knowledgeable and qualified to convey that learning and be Mujaaz. This latter type is usually what is meant when we say: "narrated by Ijaza". Such an Ijaza can be khassa i.e. specific to a particular work, or `amma i.e. general and including all the narrations of the one giving it - the Mujeez.

There are many more types, these are outlined in the literature on hadith science such as Dr. `Itr's Manhaj al-Naqd fi `Ulum al-Hadith. One of the weakest types is Wijada or "Finding" which applies to what a reader narrates from a book, newspaper etc. Such a narration is rejected by the vast majority.

5) If a scholar received a book containing all the chains of transmission directly from a Muhaddith, can that individual narrate the hadiths from that Muhaddith using all of his chains? Especially since
the Muhaddith didn't give written or verbal Ijaza, but merely handed all of his chains as a gift to his student.

Such a gift of his book is an implicit permission to narrate from him with the chains contained in the book, because the value of such a gift resides in such a permission and practical use. It is
unusual that such a gift be made without written or at least oral Ijaza being pronounced at the time.

Should such take place, it is the responsibility of the student to ask explicitly for such an Ijaza so as to be at rest even if the Ijaza is implicit in the gifting. There is, of course, no such Ijaza at all if one were to purchase or find or borrow such a book or obtain it from other than its own compiler - other than "Wijada" which is not accepted.

6) A man came across a book containing all the chains of a contemporary Hadith scholar, can that man narrate hadiths with their chains via that scholar he did not meet?

He can, but making clear that "he read it in a book that such a scholar said..." i.e. by Wijada. Such a chain is munqati`. This is done mostly by the Qussaas and Ikhbariyyun - story-tellers and chroniclers.

7) A man was given a verbal Ijaza aama by a scholar. Now can that man narrate hadiths by connecting up an isnad via the one who gave him the verbal ijaza all the way back to the Salaf with a continuous chain - after discovering authentic routes using published chains of transmission? In this case the scholar who gave the Ijaza didn't narrate any of his chains or issue a publication with his chains at hand to the one he gave the Ijaza to.

An example: Student X was given a verbal Ijaza from Scholar Y. Later, Student X came across a book of published Isnads by Scholar Z - who happened to be the teacher of Scholar Y. Can student X narrate hadiths using Scholar Z's work, by connecting it via the route of Scholar Y?

Yes, as long as one ascertains X not only is the general teacher of Y, but also that Y narrates from X all such chains found in that publication. For example, we know that the Shuyukh of Damascus are all connected to the great Muhaddith Muhammad Ja`far al-Kattani rahimahullah
(his being the highest chain to Rasulullah saws on the face of the earth), but we do not know the actual link or two or three TO him for each Shaykh. Once we do, we may narrate from them through him in that precise fashion, if we are honored with ijaza from them, and Allah knows best.

Hajj GF Haddad