BismiLLahir-Rahmanir-Raheem
Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ala Aali Muhammad

INTRODUCTION

This is a small response to statements that was given in a talk on Thursday 25th September Saturday 1997 in Sri Lanka. The responses are due to the incorrect statements made by the speaker Mr. Abdur-Rahman Green whose speech, contradicts the beliefs and practices of the Ahl as-Sunnah wa Jama`ah. We will begin in sha Allah, noting what he said then following his statements with our comments or responses.

The comments that are made by Mr. Green, are a common trend amongst this Martin Lutheran Protestant Type of Islamic Movement, that just started seeing its brighter days earlier this century after their doctrine has been banned through out our Islamic history. But in our days, they have made a rapid spread amongst the innocence of the zealous youth and the ignorant of the young and old. They say "only Qur`aan and Sunnah", but they themselves don`t have the reality of it and they themselves don`t understand it. And for this reason, they quote Qur`aan out of its contents that`s not applicable for the intended verse and they put forward hadiths that are either baseless or are quoted out of context for what they were intended also.

ISSUES THAT ARE TO BE ADDRESSED

1. He classifies Innovation in one category

2. He says that there is no Dhikr of the Tongue

3. He says that movement and using the Attibutes of Allah in Dhikr is not allowed.

4. He says that the only meaning of Group Dhikr is the teaching of knowledge

5. He says if someone doesn`t understand the meaning of the Attributes, he shouldn`t say them

6. He claims that the use of Tawiz or Hifz is idol worship

7. He says that visiting the graves of the Pious is Shirk.

 

1. Green classifies all Innovation-Bid`ah into only one category

Mr. Green said:

We began praising Allah . We praise him we seek His his help and we ask for the forgiveness we seek refuge in Allah from the evils of ourselves and the evil of the consequences of our evil actions. I bear witnees that Allah alone is worthy of being worshipped and that He has no partners an I will co-bear witness and I testify that Muhammad (saw) is the slave and the messenger of Allah. The best features of the Book of Allah and the best way is the way of Muhammad (saw) and the worst of all the affairs of the newly introduced methods. And all newly introduced methods into the religion are innovations. All the innovations are misguidance. All the misguidance are going astray and all that is astray is in the fire.

Response of Ahl as-Sunna wal-Jama`at: Classification of Innovation - Bid`ah into multiple categories

This statement about all newly guided innovations are destined for hell, is a very consistent phrase  along the beliefs of the so called Salafi` , but it is clearly an consistent incorrect statement and belief according to the beliefs of The Ahl as-Sunnah wa Jama`ah. They seem to paint everything with the same brush, without discrimination. And they can`t even do something as simple as walking down the streets or reading a book without first thinking , What is it he or she is doing that is innovation.` This straightjacket that they wear is their shield` against all that they freely label dalala - misguidance, (so they think), and they wear it while carrying a stick.

Know that bid`ah innovations are divided by the ulama of Ahl as-Sunna wal-Jama`ah into different parts. And they are as followed :

Bid`ah is broken up in two divisions, Bid`ah `Amal ( in actions) and Bid`ah `Itiqaadi (in belief) and their sub-divisions. For instance:

Bid`ah `amal has 2 parts

then,

and then is moves to

Bid`ah `Itiqaadi, it deals with a new belief swhich found their way into Islam after the Prophet (saw). Christianity and Judaism do not fall into this category are not of this category because they are beliefs and practices from before the time of the Prophet (saw). Also they did not call themselves Muslims. But the Jabriyya and the Qadriyya and the Mutazila and the Batiniyya and the like are of this category because they came after the time of the Holy Prophet (saw).

an-Nabulusi's Al-Hadiqat an-nadiyya:

"1) The hadith ash-Sharif recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim declares, 'If something that does not exist in this religion, which I have revealed, is brought forth with the hope of thawab, this thing will be refused.' This hadith points out that it is not a bida to bring forth something that does not concern the religion or worship. The improvements, changes made in eating, drinking, dressing, building houses and in transportation are not bida`.

"2) A hadith recorded by at-Tabarani says, 'If Muslims, after their Prophet ('alaihi 's-salam), make a bida`, an innovation in the religion, which He revealed, a sunnat which is similar to it disappears from among them.' This hadith points out that it is not bida` to make an improvement or a change in worldly affairs and customs, which is done without expecting thawab.

3) It is declared in a hadith recorded by at-Tabarani, 'Until a man of bida` gives up his bida`, Allahu ta'ala does not accept his repentance.' It is necessary to repent after every sin. There are three conditions for the repentance to be correct: to put an end to sinning, to repent from what one has done and to resolve upon never to do it again. If he has any debt or duty to other people, he has to pay it back and have himself forgiven. By 'man of bida`' is meant one who brings forth a bida` or who commits a bida` that has already been brought forth. 'Bida`' means 'inventing a belief, a deed, a word or a moral habit that does not exist in the religion, or spreading such an innovation, and expecting reward for it in the next world'. If a person who commits a sin continuously repents for another kind of sin, his repentance will be accepted. Man of bida` expects reward (thawab from his bida` and thinks that he is doing something good. Therefore, he does not think of repenting.

"4) It is declared in a hadith recorded by Ibn Maja, 'Unless the man of bida` gives up his bida`, Allahu ta'ala does not accept any of his worship.' Even the correct worship of an innovator in the religion, who changes a belief, worship, word or a habit in the religion, will not be accepted. That is, he will be deprived of reward for worship in the next world. He has to give up his bida`.

"5) It is declared in a hadith recorded by Ibn Maja, 'Even if a bida` does not cause unbelief, its inventor's fast, hajj, 'umra, jihad, repentance or any goodness will not be accepted. It is as easy for this person to go out of the religion as pulling out hairs from the butter.

bida` (haram-bad) means an addition or reduction that has been made in the religion and against the Prophet's ('alaihi 's-salam) consent after as-Sahabat al-kiram and the Tabi`in, that is, it is a change made as worship and presumed to be thawab-deserving. And reform in the religion means bida` in the religion. Changes that are made in customs are outside this kind of bida`. The ones that are declared to be evil in the Hadith ash-Sharif are the bida`' in the religion. These reforms do not help worship. They all spoil worship."

"The reforms in the religion part into two groups: the bida' in belief and those in 'ibada. The reforms in belief are either made with ijtihad, that is, they are derived from the Qur'an and the Hadith, or out of choice by reasoning or deducing. Ijtihad requires to be done by a profound scholar, that is, a mujtahid. If a mujtahid makes a mistake in doing ijtihad in belief, he will not be pardoned. He will be guilty. If the thing concerning belief, which he has misunderstood, is declared clearly in the religion and is so widespread that even the ignorant have heard about it and know it, this mujtahid and those who believe him will become unbelievers. A person who is understood to be an unbeliever cannot escape unbelief unless he repents this misbelief of his, even if he says he is a Muslim and spends all his life worshiping. If the thing concerning belief had been declared openly but is not the kind everybody has heard of, or if it had not been declared openly, he will become not an unbeliever but a man of bida` or a heretic. This wrong belief of his is a sin which is greater even than the great sins such as murder and fornication. It has been declared in hadiths that there would be seventy-two groups of bida` and that they will all go to Hell.

."Islamic scholars who have not gone wrong in their ijtihad in the belief and the Muslims who believe the truth like them are called Ahl as-Sunna or Sunni.

"The worship of the seventy-two groups of bida` is not acceptable even if they worship correctly. Their bida` in their worshiping is an additional guilt, even if they call it ijtihad.

"The ijtihads deduced by the Ahl as-Sunna scholars in the knowledge concerning 'ibadat are not bida'. Their mistakes in finding out this knowledge will not cause them to be guilty.

."Minarets, schools, books and the like which have been produced later are not bida' or reforms in the religion. These are things which help the religion. Islam has permitted and even commanded them. Things of this sort are called sunnat hasana. It is called sunnat sayyia to bring forth the things that Islam has prohibited. Bida' are sunnat sayyia[1]. The reason why the sunnat hasana were not done in the time of as-Sahaba and Tabiin was because they did not need these useful things. They were performing the jihad against unbelievers, conquering lands and spreading Islam over the world. In their time, men of bida` had not appeared or increased. It is permissible and thawab to bring forth sunnat hasana until the end of the world.

"In 'ibadat it is worse to commit a bida` than to neglect a sunnat. It is haram to commit a bida` while it is makruh to neglect a sunnat without excuse. If one supposes that it is thawab to neglect a sunnat without any excuse, it will be bida` for him to neglect a sunnat. When it is unknown if a belief, a deed or a word is a sunnat or bida`, it is necessary not to perform it, for it is necessary not to do the bida`, and it is not obligatory to perform the sunnat. If something not obligatory is omitted, it will not be performed afterwards. Therefore, the omitted sunnas of salat will not be performed afterwards. It is more thawab than all the worship of human beings and jinn not to commit the smallest of what Allahu ta'ala has prohibited. For this reason, a wajib also can be omitted where there is difficulty. But it has been said by scholars that haram cannot be committed. For example, one cannot clean, near others, the parts of his body that, have to be covered.

End of quotes from Imaam Nablusi.

Ibn Izz Abdus-Salaam

(who is  list as one of the scholars of the salafiyya) ,  explained Bid`ah in five categories:

1. Waajib
2. Haraam
3. Manduub
4. Makruuh
and
5. Mubaah

1.The First category comprises innovations that are obligatory such as recording the Quran and the Laws of Islam in writing when it was feared that something might be lost from the ; the study of the disciplines of Arabic that are necessary to understand the Quran and the Sunnah such as grammar, word declension, and lexicography ; hadith classification to distinguish between genuine and spurious prophetic traditions ; and the philosophical refutations of arguments by the Mu`tazilites and the like.

2. The second category is that of the unlawful innovations such as non-Islamic taxes and the lives, giving positions of authority in Sacred Law to those unfit for them, and devoting ones time to learning the beliefs of heretical sects that contravene the tenets of faith on the Ahil-Sunnah.

3. The third category consist of recommended innovations such as building hostels and Schools of Sacred Law (Madrasas), recording the research of Islamic Schools of Legal Thought, writing books on beneficial subjects , extensive research into fundamentals and particular applications of Sacred Law, in-depth study of Arabic linguistics, the reciting of the wirds BY THOSE WITH A SUFI PATH and commemorating the Birth of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and wearing ones best and rejoicing at it.

4. The fourth category includes innovations that are offensive, such as embellishing the Mosques , decorating the Quran and having a backup man (muballigh) loudly repeat the spoken Allahu Akbar of the Imaam when the latter`s voice is already clearly audible to those praying behind him. And..

5. The fifth category of that of innovations that are permissible , such as shifting flour, using spoons and having more enjoyable food , drink and housing.

Sharh Al-Arbi`een An-Nawawi.

"And Abdullah Muhammad Ghimari said in his Al-Qawa`id Al-Kubra that, " Ibn Izz Abdus-Salam classifies innovations according to thier benefit, harm, or indifference, into five categories of rulings: the obligatory, recommended, unlawful , offensive and the permissible: giving the examples of each and mentioning the principles of Sacred Law that verify his classification. His words on the subject display his keen insight and comprehensive knowledge of both the principles of Jurisprudence and the human advantages and disadvantages in view of which the Lawgiver has established the rulings of Sacred Law."

Because his classification of innovation was established on a firm bases in Islamic Jurisprudence and Legal Principles, it was confirmed by Imaam Nawawi , ibn Hajar `Asqalani , and the VAST MAJORITY of Islamic Scholars, who received his words with acceptance and viewed it as OBLIGATORY to apply them to the new events and contingencies that occur with the changing times and the peoples who live in them. One may not support the denial of his classification by clinging to the hadith, "Every innovation is misguidance," because the only innovation that is without exception misguidance is that concerning tenets of faith, like the innovations of the Mu`tazilites , Qadarites , Murji`ites and so on.

Allah Knows Best

2. Green  says that there is no Dhikr with the tongue

The word dhikr is usually translated into the English language as the remembrance of Allah, however we want to concern ourselves with is what our pious predecessors those who have proceeded in knowledge and piety . How they have defined and explained the meaning of dhikr in Islaam. All words of praise and glory to Allah, extolling His perfect attributes of power and majesty, beauty and majesty. Where the one utters these by the tongue or says them silently in the heart are know as dhikr or remembrance of Allah and this dhikr or remembrance of Allah should not be done only with the tongue or with mere words. Allah tells us in Surah `Araf.

" And bring your Lord to remembrance within your very souls". And Allah goes on to say that the meaning of which is with humility and in remembrance without loudness in words in the mornings and evenings and be not those who are unheedful.

Our Response: Dhikr by tongue, aloud or silent is among the best forms of worship

This verse indicates that doing dhikr in silence and without raising one's voice is better but not to altogether abandon His Remembrance from the tongue. For one utters what he loves constantly. Like when he is at work, while he is walking, when he is happy he says Al-HamduliLLah!` what is the harm in this?

In the Fatawa fiqhiyya of al-Haytami (p. 48): He was asked about Nawawi's saying at the end of the chapter entitled "Dhikr Gatherings" in his Commentary on Sahih Muslim: "Dhikr of the tongue with presence of the heart is preferable to dhikr of the heart [without]." Ibn Hajar said: "It is not because dhikr of the heart is an established worship in the lexical sense [i.e. consisting in specific formulae] that it is preferable, but because through it one intently means, in his heart, to exalt and magnify Allah above all else. That is the meaning both of the aforementioned saying of Nawawi and of the saying of some that "There is no reward in dhikr of the heart." By denying there is a reward in it, one means "There is no reward in the words, which are not uttered"; and by establishing that there is reward in it, one means "in the fact that the heart is present," as we have just said. Consider this, for it is important.

The one who engages in dhikr has the highest rank of all before Allah. The people who call on Allah without distraction have been mentioned in Qur'an, as well as the effect that calling has on their heart:

And Allah says:
"In houses which Allah has Allowed to be RAISED to honor and for His Name to be remembered in them; He is glorified there day and night by men whom neither trade nor sale can divert from the remembrance of Allah" (24:36-37).

"Those who believe, and their hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah: By remembering Allah, truly satisfaction comes to the heart" (13:28).

Or when Allah, says in His book, "The believers are those who, when they hear Allah mentioned, their hearts tremble" (al-Anfal), and the Prophet's saying in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Ibn Jubayr: "The best dhikr is La ilaha illallah." The Prophet did not say, "the best dhikr is making a lecture"; or "giving advice".

The Prophet(saw) said: udhkur Allaha hatta yaqulu majnun "Remember / mention Allah as much as you want, until people say that you are crazy and foolish" (Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad, Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih); that is: do not care about them!

The Author of Fiqh As-Sunnah it gives two examples of Loud Dhikr

1. Invocation of Allah with the tongue according to one of the formulas taught by the Prophet or any other formula;

and

2.Remembrance of Allah in the heart, or in both the heart and the tongue.

We are concerned here with the last two meanings, that of mention of Allah,

The Prophet praised a man who was awwah -- literally: one who says ah, ah! -- that is: loud in his dhikr, even when others censured him. Ahmad narrated with a good chain in his Musnad (4:159) from `Uqba ibn `Amir: "The Prophet said of a man named Dhu al-bijadayn: innahu awwah, He is a man who says ah a lot. This is because he was a man abundant in his dhikr of Allah in Qur'an-recitation, and he would raise his voice high when supplicating."

Allah said of the Prophet Ibrahim: "Verily, Ibrahim is awwah and halim" (9:114, 11:75), that is, according to Tafsir al-jalalayn: "Crying out and suffering much, out of fear and dread of his Lord." [halim = merciful, gentle.] The Prophet prayed to be awwah in the following invocation: rabbi ij`alni ilayka awwahan, "O Allah, make me one who often cries out ah to you." Narrated by Tirmidhi (book of da`awat #102, hasan sahih), Ibn Majah (Du`a' #2), and Ahmad (1:227) with a strong chain.

3. He says movement and using the Attributes of Allah in Dhikr is not allowed

So we have to understand something important. That not every single way and not every single means of making Dhikr is allowed. Rather there are some types of ways of making Dhikr that are not allowed. And Amongst these is those types of Dhikr where you find people singing sometimes to the accompaniment of musical instruments. Where the people start dancing and swaying and turning around in circles and also make Dhikr in together in unison where for example a whole group of people start saying laa ilaaha illa-Llah and they start it by doing it altogether at the same time or start mentioning the names of Allah , Raheem , Rahman al together in unison sometimes gathering together sitting on a road. This is not allowed . Why because very simply this has not been established as a practice of the Prophet (saw ) or a practice of the Companions of the Prophet

Our Response: Movement during Dhikr is Allowed as is Using Allah's (swt) Attributes

First we would like to address the question of movements during Dhikr. Since something is established in Islaam as long as it is according to and not offending the Shari`ah, we first we ask Mr. Green, How can one remain still when his Lord is mentioned in the Highest Way`? Unless this person`s heart is so hard that he gets up and walks out of the assembly, depriving himself of the blessings of the gathering, even if he was just waiting for someone. The Prophet (saw) said, "They are those who shake or are moved at the mention or remembrance of Allah (hum al-ladhina ihtazzu fi dhikrillah), that is, they have become fervently devoted and attached to His remembrance." And what better remembrance is their besides declaring His Oneness and calling out His Attributes?

Imam Habib al-Haddad said in Key to the Garden (p. 116):

Dhikr returns from the outward feature which is the tongue to the inward which is the heart, in which it becomes solidly rooted, so that it takes firm hold of its members. The sweetness of this is tasted by the one who has taken to dhikr with the whole of himself, so that his skin and heart are softened. As Allah said: "Then their skins and their hearts soften to the remembrance of Allah" (39:23).

The "softening of the heart" consists in the sensitivity and timidity that come as a result of nearness and tajalli [manifestation of one or more divine attributes]. Sufficient is it to have Allah as one's intimate companion!

As for the "softening of the skin" this is the ecstasy and swaying from side to side, which result from intimacy and manifestation or from fear and awe. No blame attaches to someone who has reached this rank if he sways and chants, for in the painful throes of love and passion he finds something which arouses the highest yearning...."

The exhortation provided by fear and awe brings forth tears and forces one to tremble and be humble. These are the states of the righteous believers (abrar) when they hear the Speech and dhikr of Allah the Exalted. "Their skins shiver" (39:23), and then soften with their hearts and incline to dhikr of Him, as they are covered in serenity and dignity, so that they are neither frivolous, pretentious, noisy, or ostentatious. Allah the Exalted has not described them as people whose reasons have departed, who faint, dance, or jump about.

The saying by Imaam Al-Qurtubi doesn`t apply in any way that the only type of group Dhikr is the place where knowledge is discussed. We say, that Dhikr has many meaning, from Recitation of the Qur`aan, Prayer and etc. and we don`t put limits ion it. The Prophet (saw) is related to say: "He who loves something mentions it much." (Narrated by Abu Nu`aym in the Hilya and Daylami in Musnad al-firdaws. Sakhawi cites it in al-Maqasid al-hasana p. 393 #1050

"Those who remember Allah standing, sitting and on their sides," (3:191), and

"Those men and women who engage much in Allah's praise. For them has Allah prepared forgiveness and a great reward." (3:191, 33:35)

Concerning the above Qur'anic verses `Ali ibn Abu Talha relates that Ibn `Abbas said, "All obligations imposed upon man by Allah are clearly marked and one is exempted from them only in the presence of a genuine cause. The only exception is the obligation of dhikr. Allah has set no specific limits for it, and under no circumstances is one allowed to be negligent of it. We are commanded to 'remember Allah standing, sitting and reclining on your sides,' in the morning, during the day, at sea or on land, on journeys or at home, in poverty and in prosperity, in sickness or in health, openly and secretly, and, in fact, at all times throughout one's life and in all circumstances."

First they accuse the Ahl as-Sunnnah wa Jama`ah of innovations, then they turn around and put a limit where there is none set. They are the ones who are making the Halaal Haram

3a.

He denies the permissibility of the Dhikr of Ar-Rahman and Ar-Raheem or any other Attribute. (He contradicts himself when he says in his opening lecture on the first page:

"The first type of Dhikr is the remembrance of the names (Attributes of Allah) glorious and mighty as He the remembrance of His Attributes and praising Him and thanking him.

." This type of remembrance of Allah by mentioning His Name and Attributes.")

Here is the belief of  Ahl as-Sunnah wa Jama`ah regarding when Allah says, "To Allah belong the most beautiful names, so call Him by them" (7:180). For this, one is not at liberty to object to other forms of dhikr such as Ar-Rahman and Ar-Raheem or any other Attribute.

We must remember that Bilal used to make the dhikr Ahad, Ahad while undergoing torture. Ibn Hisham says in his Sira: Ibn Ishaq narrates [with his chain of transmission] saying: "Bilal was a faithful Muslim, pure of heart... Umayya ibn Khalaf used to bring him out in the hottest part of the day and throw him on his back in the open valley and have a great rock put on his chest; the he would say to him: You will stay here until you die or deny Muhammad and worship al-Lat and al-`Uzza. He used to say while he was enduring this: ahad, ahad -- One, One!"

Ibn Hajar cites it in al-Isaba (1:171 #732).

Prophet prayed to Allah with the following invocations:

"Labbayka ilah al-Haqq" [At your command, O the God of Truth]. [2]

Allah said: "Wa lillahi al-asma' al-husna fad`uhu biha" : To Allah belong the Most beautiful Names, so call Him with them (7:180). These names are not confined to ninety-nine, as Nawawi explicitly stated in his commentary on the hadith in Bukhari and Muslim whereby the Prophet said: "Inna lillahi ta`ala tis`atan wa tis`ina isman, mi'atan illa wahidan, man ahsaha dakhala al-jannat...": "There are ninety-nine names which belong to Allah, one hundred less one, whoever memorizes (or recites) them enters Paradise..."

The Prophet used to call Allah by ALL His Names: "Allahumma inni ad`uka bi asma'ika al-husna kulliha": O Allah, I invoke You with all of Your beautiful Names.[3]

4. Green claims the only Gatherings of Dhikr is where knowledge is being taught.

Al-Kurtubi said the most excellent scholar who wrote one of the most famous tafseers of the Qur`aaan , he said gatherings of Dhikr are the gathering s of knowledge and admonition.. Those in which the word of Allah and the sunnah of his Messenger (saw) stories and accounts of the pious prodecesors and the Salafusala.

Our Response: Dhikr takes Multiple Forms, all Allowed

We ask Mr. Green this question, do the Angels gather around the Throne and give speeches or do they make Dhikr by recalling Allah`s Names and Attributes and praising Him? When the Prophet (saw) lifted the veil for the Companions to hear the pebbles making Dhikr, did they hear a speech, or did they hear Dhikr? Did not Allah inform us that All of Creation does their own form of Dhikr, but we are not aware of it? And if one is sitting alone say Allah , Allah` and someone comes and join him, is this aloud? Are the other Creations of Allah allowed to do Dhikr in a Gathering and the best of His (swt) creation are forbidden to do so? We seek refuge in Allah from such ignorance.

In Bukhari and Muslim:

The Prophet said that Allah has angels roaming the roads to find the people of dhikr, i.e. those who say La Ilaha Illallah and similar expressions, and when they find a group of people (qawm) reciting dhikr, they call each other and encompass them in layers until the first heaven -- the location of which is in Allah's knowledge. (This is to say, an unlimited number of angels are going to be over that group. He didn't say: "when they find one person." Therefore it is a must to be in a group to get this particular reward.) Allah asks His angels, and He knows already (but he asks in order to assure it and make it understandable for us) "What are my servants saying?" (He did not say "servant," but `ibadi, "servants" in the plural.) The angels say: "They are praising You (tasbih) and magnifying Your Name (takbir) and glorifying You (tahmid), and giving You the best Attributes (tamjid)." (Can you say that all this is a lecture or a study group? Can you say that this is silent? Rather, this is saying "Alhamdulillah" and all kinds of other dhikr.) Allah says: "Have they seen Me?" The angels answer: "O our Lord! They did not see You." He says: "(They are praising Me without seeing Me,) what if they see Me!" The angels answer: "O our Lord, if they saw You, they are going to do more and more worship, more and more tasbih, more and more takbir, more and more tamjid!" He says: "What are they asking?" Angels say: "They are asking Your Paradise!" He says: "Did they see Paradise?" They say: "O our Lord, no, they have not seen it." He says: "And how will they be if they see it?" They say: "If they see Paradise, they are going to be more attached and attracted to it!" He says: "What are they fearing and running away from?" (When we are saying, "Ya Ghaffar (O Forgiver), Ya Sattar (O Concealer)," it means that we are fearing Him because of our sins. We are asking Him to hide our sins and forgive us.) They say: "They are fearing and running away from hellfire." He says: "And have they seen hellfire?" They say: "O our Lord, no, they did not see hellfire." He says: "And how will they be if they see fire and hell?" They say: "If they see your fire, they are going to be running from it more and more, and be even more afraid of it." (Now listen to this carefully:) And Allah says: "I am making you witness (and does Allah need witnesses? He needs no witness since He said: "Allah is sufficient as witness." Why make the angels witnesses? Does Allah change His word? "Making you witness" here means, "Assuring you") that I have forgiven them." (Why has Allah forgiven them? Because, as the beginning of the hadith states, they are a group of people reciting the Names of Allah and remembering Him with His dhikr.) One of the angels says: "O my Lord, someone was there who did not belong to that group, but came for some other need." (That person came for some other purpose than dhikr, to ask someone for something.) Allah says: "Those are such a group that anyone who sits with them -- no matter for what reason -- that person will also have his sins forgiven."

Imam Ahmad Mashhur al-Haddad (d. 1416/1995) said in his book Miftah al-janna (cf. transl. Mostafa Badawi, Key to the Garden, Quilliam Press p. 107-108):

This hadith indicates what merit lies in gathering for dhikr, and in everyone present doing it aloud and in unison, because of the phrases: "They are invoking You" in the plural, and "They are the people who sit," meaning those who assemble for remembrance and do it in unison, something which can only be done aloud, since someone whose dhikr is silent has no need to seek out a session in someone else's company.

This is further indicated by the hadith qudsi which runs: "Allah says: I am to my servant as he expects of Me, I am with him when he remembers Me. If he remembers Me in his heart, I remember him to Myself, and if he remembers me in an assembly, I mention him in an assembly better than his..." (Bukhari and Muslim) Thus, silent dhikr is differentiated from dhikr said out loud by His saying: "remembers Me within himself," meaning: "silently," and "in an assembly," meaning "aloud."

Dhikr in a gathering can only be done aloud and in unison. The above hadith thus constitutes proof that dhikr done outloud in a gathering is an exalted kind of dhikr which is mentioned at the Highest Assembly (al-mala' al-a`la) by our Majestic Lord and the angels who are near to Him, "who extol Him night and day, and never tire" (21:20).

The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "The single-hearted (al-mufarridun) have surpassed all." They asked, "Who are these single-hearted people, O Prophet of Allah?" He replied, "Those men and women who remember Allah unceasingly." (Muslim)

Ibn Qayyim explains in his book Madarij al-salikin that the term mufarridun has two meanings here: either the muwahidun, the people engaged in tawhid who declare Allah's Oneness as a group (i.e. not necessarily alone), or those whom he calls ahad furada, the same people as (single) individuals sitting alone (in isolation).

From this example it is evident that in the explanation of Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya, sittings of dhikr can be in a group, and can be all alone. In another explanation of mufarridun also cited by Ibn Qayyim, the meaning is those that tremble from reciting dhikrullah, entranced with it perpetually, not caring what people say or do about them.'

Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet said: "When you pass by the gardens of Paradise, avail yourselves of them." The Companions asked: "What are the gardens of Paradise, O Messenger of Allah?" He replied: "The circles of dhikr. There are roaming angels of Allah who go about looking for the circles of dhikr, and when they find them they surround them closely."[4]

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri and Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet, peace by upon him, said, "When any group of men remember Allah, angels surround them and mercy covers them, tranquility descends upon them, and Allah mentions them to those who are with Him."[5]

Mu`awiya that the Prophet went out to a circle of his Companions and asked: "What made you sit here?" They said: "We are sitting here in order to remember / mention Allah (nadhkurullaha) and to glorify Him (wa nahmaduhu) because He guided us to the path of Islam and he conferred favours upon us." Thereupon he adjured them by Allah and asked if that was the only purpose of their sitting there. They said: "By Allah, we are sitting here for this purpose only." At this the Prophet said: "I am not asking you to take an oath because of any misapprehension against you, but only because Gabriel came to me and informed me that Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, was telling the angels that He is proud of you!" Note that the hadith stated jalasna -- we sat -- in the plural, not singular. It referred to an association of people in a group, not one person.[6]

Shahr ibn Hawshab relates that one day Abu al-Darda' entered the Masjid of Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) and saw people gathered around their admonisher (mudhakkir) who was reminding them, and they were raising their voices, weeping, and making invocations. Abu al-Darda' said: "My father's life and my mother's be sacrificed for those who moan over their state before the Day of Moaning!" Then he said: "O Ibn Hawshab, let us hurry and sit with those people. I heard the Prophet say: If you see the groves of Paradise, graze in them, and we said: O Messenger of Allah, what are the groves of Paradise? He said: The circles of remembrance, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, no people gather for the remembrance of Allah Almighty except the angels surround them closely, and mercy covers them, and Allah mentions them in His presence, and when they desire to get up and leave, a herald calls them saying: Rise forgiven, your evil deeds have been changed into good deeds!" Then Abu al-Darda' made towards them and sat with them eagerly.[7]

Abu Hurayra who said: "While on the road to Mecca the Prophet passed on top of a mountain called Jumdan (= frozen in its place), at which time he said: Move on (siru)! Here is Jumdaan Mountain: and the single-minded (al-mufarridun) are foremost. They said: What are the single-minded? He said: The men and women who remember Allah much (al-dhakirun Allah kathiran wa al-dhakirat)." [8]

The Prophet said: "The single-minded (al-mufarridun) are foremost. They said: 'What are the single-minded? He said: Those who dote on the remembrance of Allah and are ridiculed because of it (al-mustahtirun bi dhikr Allah), and whose burdens the dhikr removes from them (yada`u `anhum al-dhikru athqalahum), so that they come to Allah fluttering (fa ya'tun Allaha khifaqan)."[9]

The above evidences is enough to prove from the Qur`aan and Sunnah and the Companions the Blessings and the Benefits of the Souls of Group Dhikr. And Allah Knows Best.

5. He says that if someone doesn`t understand the meaning if the Attributes he shouldn`t say it.

"Whoever witness that Allah alone is worthy of being worshipped from his heart not just from his tongue, saying some words that he does not truly understand the meaning of, as in the case of so many people who call themselves Muslims today unfortunately, but rather he says it or she say it from his or her heart, why because their hearts are in a true state of servitude and submission and slavery to Allah (swt)

Our Response: Call Him (swt) by His Most Beautiful Names

Mr. Green cant seem to realize that there are some people that are in this world who are not born Muslim, and for them to hear the name of Allah and His Attributes, helps them remember Him (swt) more. How else can a person who doesn`t know the language, know what he is saying if he doesn`t know how it sounds? We know of many people who without the Repetitions of His Divine Names would not develop awe in his heart about his Lord.

Ibn Hajr in Fat`hul Bari

" Dhikr can take place with the tongue, for which the one who utters it receives reward, and it is not necessary for this that he understand or recall its meaning, on condition that he not mean other than its meaning by its utterance; and if, in addition to its utterance, there is dhikr in the heart, then it is more complete; and if there is, added to that, the recollection of the meaning of the dhikr and what it entails such as magnifying Allah and exalting Him above defect or need, it is even more complete; and if all this takes place inside a good deed, whether an obligatory prayer, or jihad, or other than that, it is even more complete; and if one perfects one's turning to Allah and purifies one's sincerity towards Him: then that is the farthest perfection."

 

And we can take the example of what the Prophet (saw) said:

When a man complained, "The laws of Islam are too heavy for me, so tell me something that I can easily follow," the Prophet told him, "Let your tongue be always busy with the remembrance of Allah."[10]

And even those who are born Muslim, need to hear His name because the Prophet (saw) said:

"The Hour will not rise before Allah is no longer said on earth." And through another chain: "The Hour will not rise on anyone saying: Allah, Allah." Muslim narrated both in his Sahih, Book of Iman (belief), chapter 66 entitled: dhahab al-iman akhir al-zaman "The Disappearance of Belief at the End of Times." The reason why Imam Muslim placed the hadith under the chapter heading of the disappearance of belief (iman) at the end of times although there is no mention of belief in the hadith. This shows that saying "Allah, Allah" stands for belief. Those who say it show belief, while those who don't say it, don't show belief. Therefore those who fight those who say it, are actually worse than those who merely lack belief and do not say "Allah, Allah."

For Imam Ghazali said in his Ihya:

It is man's soul and spirit that constitute his real nature... Upon death his state changes in two ways. Firstly he is now deprived of his eyes, ears and tongue, his hand, his feet and all his parts, just as he is deprived of family, children, relatives, and all the people he used to know, and of his horses and other riding-beasts, his servant-boys, his houses and property, and all that he used to own. There is no distinction to be drawn between his being taken from these things and these things being taken from him, for it is the separation itself, which causes pain....

If there was anything in the world in which he had found consolation and peace, then he will greatly lament for it after he dies, and feel the greatest sorrow over losing it. His heart will turn to thoughts of everything he owned, of his power and estates, even to a shirt he used to wear, for instance, and in which he took pleasure.

However, had he taken pleasure only in the remembrance of Allah, and consoled himself with Him alone, then his will be great bliss and perfect happiness. For the barriers, which lay between him and his Beloved, will now be removed, and he will be free of the obstacles and cares of the world, all of which had distracted him from the remembrance of Allah. This is one of the aspects of the difference between the states of life and death.[11]

Abu Hurayra reported that the Prophet said: "When a servant of Allah UTTERS the words la ilaha illallah (there is no god except Allah) sincerely, the doors of heaven open up for these words until they reach the Throne of Allah, so long as its uttered keeps away from the major sins."[12]

Abu Hurayra also reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "RENEW your faith." "How can we renew our faith?" they asked. The Prophet replied: "SAY ALWAYS: la ilaha illallah." [13]

Jabir reported that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "The best remembrance of Allah is to REPEAT la ilaha illallah and the best prayer (du'a) is al-hamdu lillah (all praise belongs to Allah)." [14]

Abu Hurayrara reported that the Prophet said: "There are two phrases that are light on the TONGUE but heavy on the scale of rewards and are dear to the Gracious One. These are: subhan Allah wa bi hamdihi, "Glorified is Allah with all praise to Him," and subhan Allah al-`azim, "Glorified is Allah, the Great." [15]

Abu Hurayra also reported that the Prophet said: "I love REAPEATING: subhan Allah, wa al-hamdu lillah, wa la ilaha illallah, wallahu akbar: "Glorified is Allah, and Praise be to Allah, and There is no God but Allah, and Allah is most Great," more than all that the sun shines upon." [16]

Those who are new in Islam and those who are already Muslims continuously need to hear and say the name of Allah along with His Attributes. Especially for those who are new, because if they were not listening to it, or saying it, how will they know what the meaning and move to the stage of Silent Dhikr.

 

6. He claims that the use of Tawiz (which he calls amulets) is idol worshiping.

Not worshipping and putting their faith and their trust in charms and amulets and bracelets and types of other things in which people put their faith and trust, believing that these things will bring them god luck ad reverse bad luck or protect their houses or their businesses or what ever it may be or rather the Prophet (saw) attained these things with shirk. So the Prophet called the people away from these things. Away from the worship of idols

Our Response: Wearing tawiz is Practice of Salaf

Again, Mr. Green states a point and relies on his own understanding about the use of Tawiz without using any type of concrete reference (like the rest of his comments ) ,which he calls amulet`s and charms. And by him using these types of words, it gives the expression that one is relying on objects rather than Allah for help. Realize, that using Tawiz is an example of using the Means of Approach that Allah advised us to use, like prayer, patience the use of ruqiyya and the person of the Prophet (saw) may it be from His hair, jubba or any other atticle that the Prophet (saw) possessed. And also from The Pious Ones (this will be explained later). The Muslim who wears a Tawiz is aware that it is Allah that gives, and the Tawiz is a vehicle for the blessings for the believer. And it could be a reminder of the Believer and help him be aware that Allah is with him and that He knows everything.

To hold that things have properties that cause benefit or harm INDEPENDENTLY of the will of Allah is Kufr, whether such properties are natural of supernatural. But the condition of certain people that showing veneration for the righteous or that obtaining blessing through them ands their effects constitutes worship of them, associating others with Allah is not supportable by the Prophetic Sunnah, which attests to the contrary, as may be seen from the following proofs which are in no way complete:

Imam al-Qurtubi

Al-Qurtubi said in his Tafsir:

Explanation of the verse:

"And We reveal of the Qur'an what is a healing And a mercy for the believers, and the wrong-doers Are not increased except in loss" (17:82)

It has been said that he who does not Seek cure through the Qur'an, Allah does not cure him.  The scholars interpret that verse in two ways however:  The first is that cure is for the hearts, by the removal of ignorance and doubt which hinder the understanding of miracles and matters pointing to Allah Almighty; The second, that cure is for outward diseases, through the use of healing verses [ruqiyya] and seeking refuge and the like.

Qurtubi then lists instructions for making a kind of ruqya  called nushra: various verses are recited over a clean container which is then filled with water; the water is then used for wudu' by someone who already has a valid wudu', and who also soaks his head and limbs with it but does not use it for ghusl or istinja'; it may be drunk; he then prays two rak`as at the conclusion of which he asks for healing, and so for three days. Qurtubi cites Ibn `Abd al-Barr's statement whereby the Prophet's condemnation of nushra concerns whatever contradicts the Qur'an and Sunna, not what  conforms to it.

Qurtubi continues:

"The Prophet said: Cure for my Community  is in but three verses of Allah's Book, a mouthful of honey, or  cupping. He also said: Ruqya is allowed as long as there is no  idolatry [shirk]; and if you can help your brother, help him. Malik ibn Anas said: To hang writings of Allah's Names  upon oneself is permitted for healing and blessing but not for protection against the evil eye [see Abu Hayyan, Tafsir al bahr  al-muhit 6:74]. `Abd Allah ibn `Amr used to hang a protective invocation taught by the Prophet around the necks of his young children. (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi - hasan) The Prophet and the Companions hated the pagan kind of ruqya or talisman or  necklace (tamima, qilada). Istishfa' or seeking blessing with Qur'an is not shirk, whether hung on oneself or not. Whoever  cites the hadiths whereby the Prophet said: "Whoever hangs something (upon oneself), he is left to it for protection" (Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, and Ahmad, all with a weak chain), and that of Ibn Mas`ud's removal of his wife's pendant saying: "Ibn  Mas`ud's family have no need of shirk" (al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih).... then this was all as a prohibition of  what the people of Jahiliyya used to do in wearing amulets and pendants, thinking that they protected them against calamity,   whereas only Allah protects, relieves, and tests, and He has no partner. So the Prophet forbade them what they used to do in  their ignorance. `A'isha said: "Whatever is worn after the  descent of calamity is not an amulet (laysa min al-tama'im)."...  As for seeking cure (istishfa') with the Qur'an whether worn on oneself or not then it is no shirk at all: the Prophet said:  "Whoever hangs something (upon oneself), he is left to it for protection." Therefore who hangs Qur'an is certainly taken  under Allah's protection, and He will not leave him to other than Him. Wearing a ruqya is accepted by: Ibn al-Musayyib,  ad-Dahhak, Ja`far as-Sadiq, and Ibn Sirin."

Imam Nawawi

Imam Nawawi said in al-Majmu' sharh al-muhadhdhab

vol. 2 p. 71 (Salafiyya Publishing House in Madina):

One may adduce as evidence for their permissibility [amulets (ta'wiz) containing protective or healing words (ruqya, hijab)] the hadith of `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, from his father, from his grandfather [`Amr ibn al-`As], that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to teach them for fearful situations the words: a`udhu bi kalimatillah al-tammat min ghadabihi wa sharri `ibadihi wa min hamazat al-shayatina wa an yahdurun - I seek refuge in Allah's perfect words from His wrath, from the evil of His servants, from the whispered insinuations of devils, and lest they come to me. `Abd Allah ibn `Amr [in Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud: `Abd Allah ibn `Umar] used to teach these words to those of his sons who had reached the age of reason, and used to write them and hang them upon those who had not.[17]

Al-Baydawi

al-Baydawi said about this verse: "It is said that it refers to what cures from physical diseases, such as the Verses of Healing (ayat al-shifaa') and the Fatiha."

Al-Khazin

al-Khazin: "With regard to the Qur'an being a cure for diseases of the body, this is because the blessing obtained (tabarruk) from its recitation protects from many (physical) diseases, as shown by the hadith of the Prophet concerning the Fatiha when he said: How did you know that they were protective verses (ruqya)? (Bukhari and Muslim)"

Bukhari and Muslim relate the hadith of ruqiyya through Abu Sa`id al-Khudri [a Companion healed an Arab from scorpion-bite by reciting al-Fatiha on him seven times, and the Prophet (s) later asked him: How did you know it was a ruqiyya?]. {Qurtubi then lists instructions for making a kind of ruqiyya called nushra: various verses are recited over a clean container which is then filled with water; the water is then used for wudu' by someone who already has a valid wudu', and who also soaks his head and limbs with it but does not use it for ghusl or istinja'; it may be drunk; he then prays two rak`as at the conclusion of which he asks for healing, and so for three days.}

The Prophet (s) said: Cure for my Community is in but three verses of Allah's Book, a mouthful of honey, or cupping. (Tabari) He also said: Ruqiyya is allowed as long as there is no idolatry [shirk]; and if you can help your brother, help him. Malik ibn Anas said: To hang writings of Allah's Names upon oneself is permitted for healing and blessing but not for protection magainst the evil eye. Abdullah ibn `Amr  used to hang a protective invocation taught by the Prophet (s) around the necks of his young children. (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi - hasan) The Prophet (s) and the Companions hated the pagan kind of ruqiyya or talisman [tamima, qilaada]. Istishfa' [seeking blessing] with Qur'an is not shirk, whether hung on oneself or not. The Prophet (s) said: Who hangs something (upon oneself), he is left to it for protection. Therefore who hangs Qur'an is certainly taken under Allah's protection, and He will not leave him to other than Him. Hanging a ruqiyya is accepted [among the Tabi`in] by: Ibn al-Musayyib, ad-Dahhak, Ja`far as-Sadiq, and Ibn Sirin.

End of Qurtubi's words

And using the blessings through the Prophet (saw) , we will remind others about the story of Jacob and his son in Allah`s book and that the evidence for the tabarruk of the Companions and the Tabi`in through the Prophet and the saints is innumerable:

Allah said: "Go with this my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see (clearly)... When the Caravan left (Egypt), their father said: I do indeed scent the presence of Yusuf..." (12:93-94).

Anas said, "Allah's Messenger allowed ruqya against the evil eye, fever, and ulcers/sores." [18]

Awf ibn Malik said: We would use ruqya in Jahiliyya, so we said: "O Messenger of Allah, what do you say about this?" He replied: "Show me your protective words (a`ridu `alayya ruqakum), there is no harm in ruqya as long as it contains no shirk." [19]

Among the Companions it is established that `Abd Allah ibn `Amr used to make his small children wear ta`wiz and he certainly would not have done it if it consisted in shirk or led to it. This is confirmed by the Tabi`in who accepted the unconditional wearing of ta`wiz by both adults and children such as Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, al-Dahhak, Ja`far al-Sadiq, and Ibn Sirin, and among those of later times Malik ibn Anas, as related by Qurtubi. Neither the latter nor Imam Nawawi objected to it, nor did the narrators of `Abd Allah ibn `Amr's report such as Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ahmad, and Abu Dawud.

Hajjaj ibn Hassan said: "We were at Anas's house and he brought up the Prophet's cup from a black pouch. He ordered that it be filled with water and we drank from it and poured some of it on our heads and faces and sent blessings on the Prophet. [20]

`Asim said: "I saw that cup and I drank from it."[21]

Ibn `Umar used to touch the seat of the Prophet's minbar and then wipe his face for blessing. [22]

From Abu Hurayra, Jabir, Abu Imama, and Malik: The Prophet made it a sunna to swear to the truth on top of his minbar. Nisa'i, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja, and others. [23]

Jabir sold a camel to the Prophet and the latter gave instructions to Bilal to add a qirat (1/12 dirham) to the agreed sale price. Jabir said: "The Prophet's addition shall never leave me," and he kept it with him after that. [24]

When `Abdullah ibn Anis came back from one of the battles having killed Khalid ibn Sufyan ibn Nabih, the Prophet gifted him his staff and said to him: "It will be a sign between you and me on the Day of Resurrection." Thereafter he never parted with it and it was buried with him when he died. [25]

In al-Shifaby Qaadhi Iyad', in the chapter entitled "Esteem for the things and places connected with the Prophet," that after Jihjah al-Ghifari took the Prophet's staff from the hands of `Uthman and tried to break it accross his knee, infection seized his knee which led to its amputation, and he died before the end of the year.

Jabir says: "The Prophet came after `Abdullah ibn Ubay had been placed in his grave. He ordered that he be brought out. He placed his hands on `Abdul's knees, breathed (nafth) upon him mixing it with saliva, and dressed him with his shirt. [26]

There is simply not enough room to give all the proofs about this, but this should be sufficient.

Bukhari narrates that `Uthman ibn `Abdullah said (ra), My wife came to Umm Salama with a cup of water, in which to dip the lock containing some of the Prophet`s (saw) hair. Whenever a person was suffering from the evil eye or an illness, they would send her a vessel of water (which Umm Salama would dip the hair in, by treating the ill by thier drinking it or washing with it . I looked at the metal bell (holding the lock of hair) and i saw some red hairs.

Bukhari narrates from Abu Moosa that , "the Prophet (saw) called for a vessel of water, washed his hands and face in it, spat a mouth full of water back into it and then saud to Abu Moosa and Bilal, " Drink it and pour the rest of it over your face and chests."

Bukhari relates from Mahmud ibn Rabi` that, "when the Prophet (saw) performed his abulution, the Companions almost fought over the excess water."

The Prophet (saw) would have never permitted the like of this if there were any sucspision of associating partners with Allah in it. In each of the above hadiths and others, there is a clear basis for the legal vadility of obtaining blessings through the effects of the righteous, as it was done with the Prophet`s consent and wish by the Companions, this being the reason that Muslims after them have done also.

7. He says that visiting the Graves of the Pious is shirk

Away from the sublications and calling on the dead people, when there they are Prophets or Pious People as the arabs in the tiime of the Prophet did as you find still today, who call themselves Muslim doing that and going to the graves of the pious and calling upon them and tjhis is nothing except Shirk because Alah ordered that we should call upon Him alone indeed.

Our Response: Visiting Graves of Muslims is a Meritorious Act in Islam

This misconception that Mr. Green is suffering from is a common disease amongst those who mistake Ziyaarah with worship. And for one to understand intercession from those who are in their graves, it would be necessary to explain in short the Blessing of the Martyrs. Allah has ordered us not to say that the Martyrs-the one s who died in the way of Allah dead, they are alive being provided for in their graves. And with this, there is a saying when the Prophet (saw) and the Companions were returning form a expedition and the Prophet said that they have left the lesseer Jihad , to the Greatest Jihad (Jihad Akbar) and that is the Jihad of the Nafs. We say. If Allah has given to them what they asked for when they were alive on this earth, then He (swt) will give to them while they are in their graves when asked. Because Allah is the Provider in this life , in the Barzakh and what comes after it, not the person being asked.

Imaam Ghazali mentioned in his Ihya that the Prophet (saw) said: al-MUJAHIDU man jahada nafsahu fi ta`at Allah `azza wa jall [The fighter against unbelief is he who fights against his ego in obeying God.[27]

Sufyan al-Thawri said: "I never dealt with anything stronger against me than my own ego; it was one time with me, and one time against me"

... Yahya ibn Mu`adh al-Razi said: "Fight against your ego with the four swords of training: eat little, sleep little, speak little, and be patient when people harm you... Then the ego will walk the paths of obedience, like a fleeing horseman in the field of battle."

So we of the Ahils-Sunnah wa Jamaa`ah say that when a person is in a constant battle between himself and his nafs and he overcomes it, he is in a higher status to Allah than the one killed on the battle field. And the Prophet (saw) is above them all, so we will first mention the hadith about the blind man and asked Him (saw): "Invoke Allah for me that he help me." He replied: "If you wish I will delay this, and it would be better for you, and if you wish I will invoke Allah the Exalted (for you)." He said: "Then invoke him." The Prophet said to him: idhhab fa tawadda', wa salli rak`atayn thumma qul -- "Go and make an ablution, pray two rak`at, then say: "O Allah, I am asking you (as'aluka) and turning to you (atawajjahu ilayka) with your Prophet Muhammad (bi nabiyyika Muhammad), the Prophet of mercy; O Muhammad (ya Muhammad), I am turning with you to my Lord regarding my present need / I am asking my Lord with your intercession concerning the return of my sight (inni atawajjahu bika ila rabbi fi hajati hadhih -- another version has: inni astashfi`u bika `ala rabbi fi raddi basari) so that He will fulfill my need; O Allah, allow him to intercede (with you) for me (allahumma shaffi`hu fiyya)." [28]

1. The Prophet's order, here as elsewhere, carries legislative force for all Muslims and is not limited to a particular person, place or time; it is valid for all generations until the end of time unless proven otherwise by a subsequent indication from the Prophet himself, Peace be upon him.

2. The Prophet was not physically present at the assigned time of the invocation, since he said to the blind man: "Go and make ablution," without adding: "and then come back in front of me." With regard to physical absence, the living and the dead are exactly alike, namely:absent.

Despite the Prophet's physical absence, the wording (sigha) for calling upon his intercession is direct address: "O Muhammad." Such a wording -- "O So-and-So" -- is only used with someone present and able to hear. It should also be noted that Allah forbade the Companions from being forward or calling out to the Prophet in the ordinary manner used with one another (49:1-2). The only way, therefore, that the Prophet, Blessings and peace be upon him, could both be absent and at the same be addressed is that the first be understood in the physical sense and the second in the spiritual.

The above invocation was also used after the Prophet's lifetime, as is proven by the sound (sahih) hadith authenticated by Bayhaqi, Abu Nu`aym in the Ma`rifa, Mundhiri (Targhib 1:473-474), Haythami, and Tabarani in the Kabir (9:17-18) and the Saghir (1:184/201-202) on the authority of `Uthman ibn Hunayf's nephew Abu Imama ibn Sahl ibn Hunayf: A man would come to `Uthman ibn `Affan for a certain need, but the latter would not pay him any attention nor look into his need, upon which he complained of his condition to `Uthman ibn Hunayf who told him: "Go and make ablution, then go to the mosque and pray two rak`at, then say (this du`a)," and he mentioned the invocation of the blind man, "then go (to `Uthman again)." The man went, did as he was told, then came to `Uthman's door, upon which the door-attendant came, took him by the hand, and brought him to `Uthman who sat him with him on top of the carpet, and said: "Tell me what your need is." After this the man went out, met `Uthman ibn Hunayf again, and said to him: "May Allah reward you! Previously he would not look into my need nor pay any attention to me, until you spoke to him." He replied: "I did not speak to him, but I saw the Prophet when a blind man came to him complaining of his failing eyesight," and he mentioned to him the substance of the previous narration.

It is narrated that `Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph, would pray to Allah for rain during times of drought through the means, the honor and intercession of the uncle of the Prophet, `Abbas ibn `Abd Muttalib by using this supplication, "O Our Lord! Previously, when we had a drought, we used to come to You by means and intercession of Your Prophet. Now we are requesting intercession through the uncle of the Prophet to grant us rain." And it was granted. Bukhari relates it. `Umar added, after making this supplication: "He (al-`Abbas), by Allah, is the means to Allah" (hadha wallahi al-wasilatu ilallahi `azza wa jall).

Ibn `Abd al-Barr relates it in al-Isti`ab bi ma`rifat al-ashab.

The scholars have explained that `Umar sought the means of al-`Abbas rather than the Prophet in order to show and acknowledge the status of the Prophet's uncle among the people and, more generally, of the Ahl al-Bayt or direct relatives of the Prophet. Al-Kawthari in his Maqalat (p. 411) cites Ibn `Abd al-Barr's commentary in al-Isti`ab that `Umar used al-`Abbas in response to Ka`b's words: "O Commander of the believers, the Bani Isra`il in such circumstances used to pray for rain by means of the relatives of Prophets." It is not, as some ignorant explainers of the hadith have fancied, because the Prophet's means is no longer available that `Umar used al-`Abbas as a wasila. The hadith of `Uthman ibn Hunayf and the words of Imam Malik to al-Mansur show that the Prophet continued to be sought by the Companions and the Followers as a wasila or means of blessing and benefit even after he left this life. Following is some more evidence to this effect.

Al-Darimi in the Chapter 15 of the Muqaddima (Introduction) to his Sunan (Vol. 1 p. 43) entitled: "Allah's generosity to His Prophet after his death," relates from Aws ibn `Abd Allah: "The people of Madina complained to `A'isha of the severe drought that they were suffering. She said: "Go to the Prophet's grave and open a window towards the sky so that there will be no roof between him and the sky." They did so, after which they were watered with such rain that vegetation grew and the camels got fat."

The Prophet said: "My life is a great good for you, you will relate about me and it will be related to you, and my death is a great good for you, your actions will be presented to me (in my grave) and if I see goodness I will praise Allah, and if see other than that I will ask forgiveness of Him for you." [29]

`A'ishah reports the Prophet as saying: "If a company of Muslims numbering one hundred pray over a dead person, all of them interceding for him, their intercession for him will be accepted." Muslim [jana'iz]

Ibn `Abbas said: "I have heard the Prophet say: If any Muslim dies and forty men who associate nothing with Allah stand over his body in prayer, Allah will accept them as intercessors for him." Muslim [jana'iz]

In many traditions the number of acceptable intercessors in the funeral prayer is reduced to three rows of men, even if the number is under forty. Nawawi says the scholars of usul al-fiqh adduce these traditions, also.Ahmad [4:79, 4:100] and others.

Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Bazzar: Abu Sa`id al-Khudri and Anas respectively narrate that the Prophet said: "One will be told: Stand, O So-and-so, and make intercession, and he will stand and make intercession for his tribe and his family and for one man or two men or more according to his works."

The du`a that is recited in the funeral prayer of a non-adult:

O Allah, make him/her our forerunner, and make him for us a reward and a treasure, make him one who will intercede (shafi`an) and whose intercession is accepted (mushaffa`an).

In this du`a we are clearly asking for intercession from a person who has passed away, in fact in this one we are asking for intercession from a child who has not done any deeds in this world at all. A version of it mentioning intercession is in Nawawi's Adhkar, Chapter of the du`as over the dead, and it is translated in Nuh Keller's Reliance in the section on Funerals.

In fact every janaza prayer contains a request for the intercession of the deceased in the phrase: wa la tahrimna ajrahu which means: "and do not prevent his reward from reaching us."

Bukhari related that the Prophet also said: "He whose three children died before the age of puberty, they will shield him from the Hell-Fire, or will make him enter Paradise."

7b.

TAWASSUL THROUGH AWLIYA:

Again, some people think that if a duaa from a holy man is answered while he is alive then he cannot help you if he is dead. As if the holy man or sheikh or saint is the origin of the help. But it is always Allah who is the

source of the baraka and never a human being. So to think that Allah can only give when that saint is alive and when he is dead, Allah does not give anymore, Is to say that the source *is* the person and not Allah in the first place! But in reality it is Allah who is giving help in both cases: life or death. When the Prophet said to al-Firasi, concerning asking from people: "If you absolutely must ask from people, then ask from the righteous ones" (in kunta la budda sa'ilan fas'al al-salihin). There is no doubt that the visit of pious persons is a Sunna in Islam for that very purpose, as shown by the chapters to that effect entitled Bab ziyarat al-salihin in the books of etiquette and invocations.

Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami said in his book al-Khayrat al-hisan fi manaqib al-imam Abi Hanifa al-Na`man, chapter 35:

When Imam al-Shafi`i was in Baghdad, he would visit the grave of Imam Abu Hanifa, give him salam, and then ask Allah for the fulfillment of his need through his means (yatawassal ilallah ta`ala bihi fi qada' hajatihi).

Imam Kawthari mentioned in his Maqalat (p. 412) that the hafiz al-Khatib al-Baghdadi mentions Shafi`i's tawassul through Abu Hanifa in the beginning of his Tarikh Baghdad with a sound chain.

Haytami also said in many places in his book al-Sawa`iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa: "Imam Shafi`i made tawassul through the Family of the Prophet [Ahl al-bayt] when he said:
Al al-nabi dhari`ati wa hum ilayhi wasilati  arju bihim u`ta ghadan bi yadi al-yamini sahifati - The Family of the Prophet are my means and my intermediary to him. Through them I hope to be  given my record with the right hand tomorrow.

 

Al-Hafiz Abu `Ali al-Ghassani relates in Ibn al-Subki's Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya 2:234: Abu al-Fath Nasr ibn al-Hasan al-Sakani al-Samarqandi came to us in 464 and said: "We had a drought in Samarqand some years ago. The people made the istisqa' prayer but they did not get rain. A saintly man named al-Salah came to the judge and said to him: "I have an opinion I would like to show you. My opinion is that you come out followed by the people and that you all go to the grave of Imam Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Bukhari and make istisqa' (prayer for rain) there. Perhaps Allah will give us rain." The judge said: "What a good opinion you have." He came out and the people followed him, and he prayed for rain in front of them at the grave while people wept and sought the intercession of the one that was in it. Allah sent such heavy rain that those who were in Khartenk (where this took place, 3 miles away from Samarqand) could not reach Samarqand for seven days because of the rain's abundance."

Ibn al-Jawzi in his biographies of the awliya entitled Sifat al-safwa lists many of those at whose graves tabarruk (seeking blessing) and tawassul is recommended. Among them:

Abu Ayyub al-Ansari: "al-Waqidi said: It has reached us that the Eastern Romans visit his grave and seek rain through his intercession when they suffer from droughts." 1:243. Mujahid said: "People would uncover the space above his grave and it would rain."

Ma`ruf al-Karkhi (d. 200H): "His grave can be seen in Baghdad, and one seeks blessings with it. Al-hafiz

Ibrahim al-Harbi (d. 285H) -- Imam Ahmad's companion -- used to say: "Ma`ruf's grave is proven medicine."" 2:214 Ibn al-Jawzi adds: "We ourselves go to Ibrahim al-Harbi's grave and seek blessings with it." 2:410

Al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi also relates Ibrahim al-Harbi's saying about Ma`ruf al-Karkhi: "Ma`ruf's grave is proven medicine." Siyar a`lam al-nubala' 9:343.

Abu al-Hasan al-Daraqutni said: "We used to seek blessings from Abu al-Fath al-Qawasi's grave." 2:471.

Al-hafiz Diya' al-Din al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali said in his book al-Hikayat al-manthura (Zahiriyya ms. 98, an autograph) that he heard the hafiz `Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali say that something like an abcess appeared on his upper arm for which there was found no medicine. He came to Ahmad ibn Hanbal's grave and applied his arm against it, after which he found himself healed. Imam Kawthari said that he read this account in Diya' al-Din's own handwriting: Maqalat al-Kawthari (Riyadh and Beirut: Dar al-ahnaf, 1414/1993) p. 407, 412.

The Prophet also said on the authority of Anas ibn Malik: "O Allah, grant forgiveness to my mother, Fatima Bint Asad, and make vast for her the place of her going in [i.e. her grave] by right of thy Prophet and that of those prophets who came before me" and so on until the end.

7c.

FATWAS:

Imam Ghazali said in the section on doctrine of his Ihya':

It is obligatory to believe in the intercession of first the prophets, then religious scholars, then martyrs, then other believers, the intercession of each one commensurate with his rank and position with Allah Most High.

Imam Shawkani said in his treatise entitled al-Durr al-nadid fi ikhlas kalimat al-tawhid: There is no harm in tawassul through any one of the Prophets or Friends of Allah or scholars of knowledge... One who comes to the  grave as a visitor (za'iran) and invokes Allah alone, using as his means the dead person in the grave, is as one who says: "O Allah, I  am asking that you cure me from such-and-such, and I use as a means to You whatever this righteous servant of Yours possesses for worshipping You and striving for Your sake and learning and teaching purely and sincerely for You." Such as this, there is no  hesitation in declaring that it is permitted...

The Mufti of Mecca at the time of the spread of the Wahhabi heresy, al-Sayyid Ahmad Ibn Zayni Dahlan (d. 1304) said in Khulasat al-kalam:

Tawassul (using means), tashaffu` (using intercession), and istighatha (asking help) all have the same meaning, and the only meaning they have in the hearts of the believers is that of tabarruk (using blessings) with the mention of Allah's beloved ones, since it is established that He grants His mercy to all His servants for the sake of His beloved ones, and this is the case whether they are alive or dead, because in either case the actual effecting agent and true executor is Allah Himself, and these beloved ones are only ordinary causes for Hmercy. Like any other secondary causes, they have no effective power of influence in themselves.

There is no contradiction in asking Allah both with or without an intermediary, although in reality there are always several kinds of intermediary present, beginning with one's own state, obedience, belief, acts, sincerity, etc. Only those with deficient knowledge or imperfect belief imagine that the person who asks Allah through an intermediary has associated another to his worship of Allah.

and relating to this Mr. Green states:

My brothers and sisters do you all understand even the words of Surah Faatihah. You alone do we worship and you alone do we implore for help. When we say iyakana nabuduAnd those who invoke besides Allah they cannot create anything and they cannot bring any harm

We say again, the contrast between Worship Allah and seeking Shafa`ah through the person of the Prophet or through the Righteous , are two different things. And the one`s who are confused about these manners are the ones who say it and the innocent ones who sit and listen to it. Mr. Green has made a dreadful mistake by quoting a verse fro the Qur`aan to apply that Muslims who say Laa Ilaaha Illa-Llah, are worshiping something else. This method that he is using is totally against the orders of the Prophet (saw), and that is to not use the Qur`aan for our vain desires , interperting verses out of contents.

A informative book to read on this subject is al-nadial-Durr.

And Allah Knows Best.

NOTES

[1] This is a reference to the hadith "man sanna sunnatan hasanatan fil-Islam falahu ajruhu wa ajra man `amila bihi ila yawm al-qiyama. Wa man sanna sunnatan sayyia fil-Islam falahu wizrahu wa wizar man `amala bihi ila yawm al-qiyama" - which means "whoever originates a new beneficial practice in Islam will receive its reward and the reward of all those who employ that practice until the Day of Judgment. And whoever originates an evil practice in Islam will receive its sin and the sin of all those who employ that practice until the Day of Judgment.
[2] a. Nasa'i's Sunan
b. Manasik
in Ibn Majah's. "Anta al-Haqq" Bukhari and Muslim.
[3] a.Ibn Maja, book of Du`a Imam Malik in his Muwatta', Kitab al-Shi`r.
[4] a.Tirmidhi (hasan gharib)
b.
Ahmad.
[5] a. Muslim
b.Tirmidhi
c.Ahmad
d.Ibn Majah
e. and Bayhaqi.
[6] a. Muslim
b. Ahmad
c.Tirmidhi
[7] From Ibn al-Jawzi`s "Mention of those of the elite who used to attend the gatherings of story-tellers" of his book al-Qussas wa al-mudhakkirin (The Story-tellers and the Admonishers) ed. Muhammad Basyuni Zaghlul (Beirut: dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyya, 1406/1986) p. 31.
[8] a. Muslim related it in his Sahih, beginning of the book of Dhikr.
b. Tirmidhi
[9] Tirmidhi
[10] a.Ahmad
b. Tirmidhi
c. Ibn Majah
d. Ibn Hibban
[11]Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Ihya ulum ad-din
[12] a.Tirmidhi
b. Al-Mundhiri included in al-Targhib
[13] Ahmad
[14] a. Nasa'i, Ibn Majah
b. Hakim
[15]1.Bukhari
2. Muslim
3.Tirmidhi
[16] 1.Muslim
2. Tirmidhi
[17]The hadith is related in Abu Dawud (book of Tibb #3893),
Tirmidhi who said it is hasan gharib (book of Da`awat #3519), al-Nasa'i in `Amal al-yawm wa al-layla (#765), and Ahmad in his Musnad (2:181).
al-Tibrizi cites it in Mishkat al-Masabih (see Robson transl. 1:527). See also the Reliance of the traveler p. 880. Nawawi included it in his Adhkar (Ta'if ed. p. 133 #307 and p. 166 #369) in the chapters entitled "What to say if one becomes afraid in one's sleep" and "What to say if anything terrifies one." Even Albani included the hadith in his Silsila sahiha (#264).
[18]1. Muslim
2. Tirmidhi
3. Ibn Majah
[19]1. Muslim
2. Abu Dawud
[20]1. Ahmad
2.Ibn Kathir.
[21] Bukhari.
[22]
1. al-Mughni 3:559
2. al-Shifa' 2:54
3. Ibn Sa`d, Tabaqat 1:13
4. Mawsu`at Fiqh `Abdullah ibn `Umar p. 52.
[23]1.Bukhari confirms it.
2.Ibn Hajar says: and in Mecca, one swears between the Yemeni corner and Maqam Ibrahim. (Fath al-Bari)
[24] Bukhari.
[25]1.Ahmad 3:496
2. al-Waqidi 2:533.
[26]1.Bukhari
2.Muslim.
[27]1.Tirmidhi
2. Ibn Majah
3.Ibn Hibban,
4.Tabarani
5.Hakim
[28]1.Ahmad (4:138 #17246-17247)
2.Tirmidhi (hasan sahih gharib -- Da`awat Ch. 119)
3.Ibn Majah (Book of Iqamat al-salat wa al-sunnat, Ch. on Salat al-hajat #1385)
4. Nasa'i (`Amal al-yawm wa al-laylat p. 417-418 #658-660)
5. al-Hakim (1:313, 1:526)
6.Tabarani in al-Kabir
7. Ibn Hajar
8. Dhahabi
9. Shawkani
10. Ibn Taymiyya.
[29]Haythami says in Majma` al-zawa'id (9:24 #91): "Al-Bazzar relates it and its sub-narrators are all the men of sound hadith." Qadi `Iyad cites it in al-Shifa (1:56 of the Amman edition). Suyuti said in his Manahil al-safa fi takhrij ahadith al-shifa (Beirut 1988/1408) p. 31 (#8): "Ibn Abi Usama cites it in his Musnad from the hadith of Bakr ibn `Abd Allah al-Muzani, and al-Bazzar from the hadith of Ibn Mas`ud with a sound (sahih) chain." It is cited in Shaykh al-Islam al-Taqi al-Subki's Shifa' al-siqam fi ziyarat khayr al-anam (The healing of the sick concerning the visit of the Best of Creation), where he mentions that Bakr ibn Abd Allah al-Muzani reported it, and Ibn al-Jawzi mentions it through Bakr and then again through Anas ibn Malik in the penultimate chapter of the penultimate section of al-Wafa, both huffaz without giving the isnad. However, Ibn al-Jawzi specifies in the introduction of his book that he only included sound traditions in it. He also mentions the version through Aws ibn Aws: "The actions of human beings are shown to me every Thursday on the night of (i.e. preceding) Friday." See also Fath al-Bari 10:415, al-Mundhiri's al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib 3:343, and Musnad Ahmad 4:484.